Directory:Andrew Jackson

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Template:Infobox President Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767June 8, 1845) was the 7th President of the United States (1829–1837). He was also military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and the eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy. He was a polarizing figure who dominated American politics in the 1820s and 1830s. His political ambition combined with the masses of people shaped the modern Democratic Party.[1] Nicknamed "Old Hickory" because he was renowned for his toughness, Jackson was the first President primarily associated with the frontier, as he based his career in Tennessee.

Early life and career

Andrew Jackson was born to Presbyterian Scots-Irish immigrants Andrew and Elizabeth Jackson, on March 15 1767.[2] The youngest of the Jacksons' three sons, he was born just weeks after his father's death, in the Waxhaws area near the border between North and South Carolina. His exact birth site was the subject of conflicting lore in the area. Jackson himself claimed to have been born in a cabin just inside South Carolina.[3]

File:Andrew Jackson brave boy 1780a.jpg
Jackson refusing to clean a British officer's boots (1876 lithograph)

He received a sporadic education in the local "old-field" school. During the American Revolutionary War, Jackson, at age thirteen, joined a local regiment as a courier.[4] Andrew and his brother Robert Jackson were captured by the British, and held as prisoners of war; they nearly starved to death in captivity. When Andrew refused to clean the boots of a British officer, the irate redcoat slashed at him with a sword, giving him scars on his left hand and head, as well as an intense hatred for the British.[5] Both boys contracted smallpox while imprisoned, and Robert died days after his mother secured their release. Jackson's entire immediate family died from war-related hardships that Jackson blamed upon the British, leaving him orphaned by age 14. Jackson was the last U.S. President to have been a veteran of the American Revolution, and the second President to have been a prisoner of war (Washington had been captured by the French in the French and Indian War).

In 1781, Jackson worked for a time in a saddle-maker's shop.[6] Later he taught school, and studied law in Salisbury, North Carolina. In 1787, he was admitted to the bar, and moved to Jonesboro, in what was then the Western District of North Carolina, and later became Tennessee.

Though his legal education was scanty, Jackson knew enough to practice law on the frontier. Since he was not from a distinguished family, he had to make his career by his own merits; and soon he began to prosper in the rough-and-tumble world of frontier law. Most of the actions grew out of disputed land-claims, or from assaults and battery. In 1788, he was appointed Solicitor of the Western District, and held the same position in the territorial government of Tennessee after 1791.

He also took a role in politics. In 1796, he was a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention. Upon statehood in 1796, Jackson was elected Tennessee's U.S. Representative. In 1797 he was elected U.S. Senator as a Democratic-Republican. But he resigned within a year. In 1798, he was appointed a judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court, serving until 1804.[7]

Besides his legal and political career, Jackson also prospered as a planter and merchant. In 1804, he acquired "The Hermitage", a Template:Convert farm near Nashville. Jackson later added Template:Convert to the farm. The primary crop was cotton, grown by slave workers. Jackson started with nine slaves, and had as many as 44 in 1820.[8]

Military career

War of 1812

Template:Main Jackson was appointed commander of the Tennessee militia in 1801, with the rank of colonel.

During the War of 1812, Tecumseh incited the "Red Stick" Creek Indians of northern Alabama and Georgia to attack white settlements. 400 settlers were killed in the Fort Mims Massacre. In the resulting Creek War, Jackson commanded the American forces, which included Tennessee militia, U.S. regulars, and Cherokee, Choctaw, and Southern Creek Indians.

Jackson defeated the Red Stick Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. 800 "Red Sticks" were killed, but Jackson spared chief William Weatherford. Sam Houston and David Crockett served under Jackson at this time. After the victory, Jackson imposed the Treaty of Fort Jackson upon both the Northern Creek enemies and the Southern Creek allies, wresting 20 million acres (81,000 km²) from all Creeks for white settlement. Jackson was appointed Major General after this success.

Jackson's service in the War of 1812 against the United Kingdom was conspicuous for bravery and success. When British forces menaced New Orleans, Jackson took command of the defenses, including militia from several western states and territories, many of whom were summoned by the heroic messenger Holdfast Gaines. He was a strict officer, but was popular with his troops. It was said he was "tough as old hickory" wood on the battlefield, which gave him his nickname. In the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815, Jackson's 4,000 militiamen won a total victory over 10,000 British. The British had over 2,000 casualties to Jackson's 13 killed and 58 wounded or missing.

The war, and especially this victory, made Jackson a national hero. He received the thanks of Congress and a gold medal by resolution of February 27, 1815.

First Seminole War


Military governor Jackson was sworn in at Plaza Ferdinand VII in Pensacola, Florida.

Jackson served in the military again during the First Seminole War. He was ordered by President James Monroe in December 1817 to lead a campaign in Georgia against the Seminole and Creek Indians. Jackson was also charged with preventing Spanish Florida from becoming a refuge for runaway slaves. Critics later alleged that Jackson exceeded orders in his Florida actions. His directions were to "terminate the conflict."[9] Jackson believed the best way to do this would be to seize Florida. Before going, Jackson wrote to Monroe, "Let it be signified to me through any channel... that the possession of the Floridas would be desirable to the United States, and in sixty days it will be accomplished."[10] Monroe gave Jackson orders that were purposely ambiguous, sufficient for international denials.

The Seminoles attacked Jackson's Tennessee volunteers. The Seminoles' attack, however, left their villages vulnerable, and Jackson burned them and the crops. He found letters that indicated that the Spanish and British were secretly assisting the Indians. Jackson believed that the United States would not be secure as long as Spain and the United Kingdom encouraged Indians to fight and argued that his actions were undertaken in self-defense. Jackson captured Pensacola, Florida, with little more than some warning shots, and deposed the Spanish governor. He captured and then tried and executed two British subjects, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, who had been supplying and advising the Indians. Jackson's action also struck fear into the Seminole tribes as word of his ruthlessness in battle spread.

The executions, and Jackson's invasion of territory belonging to Spain, a country the U.S. was not at war with, created an international incident. Many in the Monroe administration called for Jackson to be censured. However, Jackson's actions were defended by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, an early believer in Manifest Destiny. When the Spanish minister demanded a "suitable punishment" for Jackson, Adams wrote back "Spain must immediately [decide] either to place a force in Florida adequate at once to the protection of her territory ... or cede to the United States a province, of which she retains nothing but the nominal possession, but which is, in fact ... a post of annoyance to them."[11] Adams used Jackson's conquest, and Spain's own weakness, to get Spain to cede Florida to the United States in the Adams-Onís Treaty. Jackson was subsequently named military governor, serving from March 10, 1821 to December 31, 1821.

Election of 1824


File:Andrew Jackson Sully.jpg
Painting based on 1824 study portrait by Thomas Sully.

The Tennessee legislature nominated Jackson for President in 1822. It also elected him U.S. Senator again.

By 1824, the Democratic-Republican Party had become the only functioning party. Its Presidential candidates had been chosen by an informal Congressional nominating caucus, but this had become unpopular. In 1824, most of the Democratic-Republicans in Congress boycotted the caucus. Those that attended backed Treasury Secretary William H. Crawford for President and Albert Gallatin for Vice President. A Pennsylvanian convention nominated Jackson for President a month later, stating that the irregular caucus was in contempt of the "voice of the people" and a "vain hope that the American people might be thus deceived into a belief that he [Crawford] was the regular democratic candidate."[12] Gallatin criticized Jackson as "an honest man and the idol of the worshippers of military glory, but from incapacity, military habits, and habitual disregard of laws and constitutional provisions, altogether unfit for the office."[13]

Besides Jackson and Crawford, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and House Speaker Henry Clay were also candidates. Jackson received the most popular votes (but not a majority, and four states had no popular ballot). The Electoral votes were split four ways, with Jackson again having a plurality. Since no candidate received a majority, the election was made by the House of Representatives, which chose Adams. Jackson denounced this result as a "corrupt bargain" because Clay gave his support to Adams, who later appointed Clay as Secretary of State. Jackson's defeat burnished his political credentials, however, since many voters believed the "man of the people" had been robbed by the "corrupt aristocrats of the East."

Jefferson's opinion

Thomas Jefferson wrote favorably in response to Jackson in December of 1823: "I recall with pleasure the remembrance of our joint labors while in the Senate together in times of great trial and of hard battling, battles indeed of words, not of blood, as those you have since fought so much for your own glory & that of your country; with the assurance that my attamts continue undiminished, accept that of my great respect & consideration."[14]

Biographer Robert V. Remini said that Jefferson "had no great love for Jackson." Daniel Webster wrote that Jefferson told him in December of 1824 that Jackson was a dangerous man unfit for the presidency.[15] Historian Sean Wilentz described Webster's account of the meeting as "not wholly reliable."[16]

Jefferson wrote in dismay at the outcome of the election to Congressional caucus nominee William H. Crawford, saying that he had hoped to congratulate him but "events had not been what we had wished."[17] Edward Coles said Jefferson told him in 1825 that Jackson troubled him.[18] In the aftermath of the election, Thomas Gilmer said Jefferson's opinion underwent a shift. Jefferson's son-in-law former Virginia Governor Thomas Mann Randolph publicly said that Jefferson became friendly to Jackson's candidacy as early as the summer of 1825, perhaps because of the "corrupt bargain" charge, and thought of Jackson as "an honest, sincere, clear-headed and strong-minded man; of the soundest political principles" and "the only hope left" to reverse the increasing powers assumed by the federal government.[19]

Election of 1828

Template:Main Jackson resigned from the Senate in October 1825, but continued his quest for the Presidency. The Tennessee legislature again nominated Jackson for President. Jackson attracted Vice President John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren, and Thomas Ritchie into his camp (the latter two previous supporters of Crawford). Van Buren, with help from his friends in Philadelphia and Richmond, revived the old Republican Party, gave it a new name, "restored party rivalries," and forged a national organization of durability.[20] The Jackson coalition handily defeated Adams in 1828.

During the election, Jackson's opponents referred to him as a "Jackass." Jackson liked the name and used the jackass as a symbol for a while, but it died out. However, it later became the symbol for the Democratic Party when cartoonist Thomas Nast popularized it.[21]

Presidency 1829–1837

Template:See also Template:Infobox U.S. Cabinet

Federal debt

See also: Panic of 1837

In 1835, Jackson managed to reduce the federal debt to only $33,733.05, the lowest it has been since the first fiscal year of 1791.[22] However, this accomplishment was short lived, and a severe depression from 1837 to 1844 caused a ten-fold increase in national debt within its first year.[23]

Electoral College

Jackson repeatedly called for the abolishment of the Electoral College by constitutional amendment in his annual messages to Congress as President.[24][25] In his third annual message to Congress, he expressed the view "I have heretofore recommended amendments of the Federal Constitution giving the election of President and Vice-President to the people and limiting the service of the former to a single term. So important do I consider these changes in our fundamental law that I can not, in accordance with my sense of duty, omit to press them upon the consideration of a new Congress."[26] The institution remains to the present day.

Spoils system

Template:Main When Jackson became President, he implemented the theory of rotation in office, declaring it "a leading principle in the republican creed."[24] He believed that rotation in office would prevent the development of a corrupt bureaucracy. In addition, Jackson's supporters wanted to give the posts to fellow party members, as a reward to strengthen party loyalty. In practice, this meant replacing federal employees with friends or party loyalists.[27] However, the effect was not as drastic as expected or portrayed. By the end of his term, Jackson had dismissed less than twenty percent of the Federal employees at the start of it.[28] While Jackson did not start the "spoils system," he did indirectly encourage its growth for many years to come.

First Baby

Jackson experienced the first known case of a President being handed a baby to kiss. However, Jackson declined, and handed the baby to Secretary of War John H. Eaton to do the honors.[6]

Opposition to the National Bank


Democratic cartoon shows Jackson fighting the monster Bank. "The Bank," Jackson told Martin Van Buren, "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!"

As President, Jackson worked to take away the federal charter of the Second Bank of the United States (it would continue to exist as a state bank). The Second Bank had been authorized, during James Madison's tenure in 1816, for a 20-year period. Jackson opposed the national bank concept on ideological grounds. In Jackson's veto message (written by George Bancroft), the bank needed to be abolished because:

  • It concentrated an excessive amount of the nation's financial strength in a single institution.
  • It exposed the government to control by foreign interests.
  • It served mainly to make the rich richer.
  • It exercised too much control over members of Congress.
  • It favored northeastern states over southern and western states.

Jackson followed Jefferson as a supporter of the ideal of an "agricultural republic" and felt the Bank improved the fortunes of an "elite circle" of commercial and industrial entrepreneurs at the expense of farmers and laborers. After a titanic struggle, Jackson succeeded in destroying the Bank by vetoing its 1832 re-charter by Congress and by withdrawing U.S. funds in 1833.

1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the devil's Bank

The bank's money-lending functions were taken over by the legions of local and state banks that sprang up. This fed an expansion of credit and speculation. At first, as Jackson withdrew money from the Bank to invest it in other banks, land sales, canal construction, cotton production, and manufacturing boomed.[29] However, due to the practice of banks issuing paper banknotes that were not backed by gold or silver reserves, there was soon rapid inflation and mounting state debts.[30] Then, in 1836, Jackson issued the Specie Circular, which required buyers of government lands to pay in "specie" (gold or silver coins). The result was a great demand for specie, which many banks did not have enough of to exchange for their notes. These banks collapsed.[29] This was a direct cause of the Panic of 1837, which threw the national economy into a deep depression. It took years for the economy to recover from the damage.

The U.S. Senate censured Jackson on March 28 1834, for his action in removing U.S. funds from the Bank of the United States. The censure was later expunged when the Jacksonians had a majority in the Senate.

Nullification crisis

Template:Main Another notable crisis during Jackson's period of office was the "Nullification Crisis", or "secession crisis," of 1828 – 1832, which merged issues of sectional strife with disagreements over tariffs. Critics alleged that high tariffs (the "Tariff of Abominations") on imports of common manufactured goods made in Europe made those goods more expensive than ones from the northern U.S., raising the prices paid by planters in the South. Southern politicians argued that tariffs benefited northern industrialists at the expense of southern farmers.

The issue came to a head when Vice President Calhoun, in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest of 1828, supported the claim of his home state, South Carolina, that it had the right to "nullify"—declare void—the tariff legislation of 1828, and more generally the right of a state to nullify any Federal laws which went against its interests. Although Jackson sympathized with the South in the tariff debate, he was also a strong supporter of a strong union, with effective powers for the central government. Jackson attempted to face down Calhoun over the issue, which developed into a bitter rivalry between the two men.

Particularly notable was an incident at the April 13 1830 Jefferson Day dinner, involving after-dinner toasts. Jackson rose first, glared at Calhoun, and in a booming voice shouted "Our federal Union: IT MUST BE PRESERVED!" - a clear challenge to Calhoun. Calhoun glared at Jackson and, his voice trembling, but booming as well, responded "The Union: NEXT TO OUR LIBERTY, MOST DEAR!"[31]

File:Andrew Jackson Presidential $1 Coin obverse.jpg
Andrew Jackson Presidential Dollar

The next year, Calhoun and Jackson broke apart politically from one another. Around this time, the Petticoat Affair caused further resignations from Jackson's cabinet, leading to its reorganization as the "Kitchen Cabinet." Vice President Van Buren played a leading role in the new cabinet.[32] At the first Democratic National Convention, privately engineered by members of Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet,"[33] Martin Van Buren replaced Calhoun as Jackson's running mate. In December 1832, Calhoun resigned as Vice President to become a U.S. Senator for South Carolina.

In response to South Carolina's nullification claim, Jackson vowed to send troops to South Carolina to enforce the laws. In December 1832, he issued a resounding proclamation against the "nullifiers," stating that he considered "the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed." South Carolina, the President declared, stood on "the brink of insurrection and treason," and he appealed to the people of the state to reassert their allegiance to that Union for which their ancestors had fought. Jackson also denied the right of secession: "The Constitution... forms a government not a league... To say that any State may at pleasure secede from the Union is to say that the United States is not a nation."[34]

Jackson asked Congress to pass a "Force Bill" explicitly authorizing the use of military force to enforce the tariff. But it was held up until protectionists led by Clay agreed to a reduced Compromise Tariff. The Force Bill and Compromise Tariff passed on March 1, 1833. and Jackson signed both. The South Carolina Convention then met and rescinded its nullification ordinance. The Force Bill became moot because it was no longer needed.

Indian removal


File:Andrew jackson head.gif
Official White House portrait of Jackson.

Perhaps the most controversial aspect of Jackson's presidency was his policy regarding American Indians.[35] Jackson was a leading advocate of a policy known as Indian removal. In his December 8, 1829 First Annual Message to Congress, Jackson stated:

This emigration should be voluntary, for it would be as cruel as unjust to compel the aborigines to abandon the graves of their fathers and seek a home in a distant land. But they should be distinctly informed that if they remain within the limits of the States they must be subject to their laws. In return for their obedience as individuals they will without doubt be protected in the enjoyment of those possessions which they have improved by their industry.[36]


Swedish scholar Mattias Gardell says Jackson called Indian removal the "Final Solution" to the Indian issue during his election campaign.[37] After his election he signed the Indian Removal Act into law in 1830. The Act authorized the President to negotiate treaties to purchase tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands further west, outside of existing U.S. state borders.

While frequently frowned upon in the North, the Removal Act was popular in the South, where population growth and the discovery of gold on Cherokee land had increased pressure on tribal lands. The state of Georgia became involved in a contentious jurisdictional dispute with the Cherokees, culminating in the 1832 U.S. Supreme Court decision (Worcester v. Georgia) which ruled that Georgia could not impose its laws upon Cherokee tribal lands. Jackson is often quoted (regarding the decision) as having said, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!" Whether or not he actually said it is disputed.[38]

In any case, Jackson used the Georgia crisis to pressure Cherokee leaders to sign a removal treaty. A small faction of Cherokees led by John Ridge negotiated the Treaty of New Echota with Jackson's representatives. Ridge was not a recognized leader of the Cherokee Nation, and this document was rejected by most Cherokees as illegitimate.[39] Over 15,000 Cherokees signed a petition in protest; it was ignored by the Supreme Court.[40] The treaty was enforced by Jackson's successor, Van Buren, who ordered 7,000 armed troops to remove the Cherokees.[41] This resulted in the deaths of over 4,000 Cherokees on the "Trail of Tears."

By the 1830s, under constant pressure from settlers, each of the five southern tribes had ceded most of its lands, but sizable self-government groups lived in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. All of these (except the Seminoles) had moved far in the coexistence with whites, and they resisted suggestions that they should voluntarily remove themselves. Their non-violent methods earned them the title the Five Civilized Tribes.[42]

In all, more than 45,000 American Indians were relocated to the West during Jackson's administration. During this time, the administration purchased about 100 million acres (400,000 km²) of Indian land for about $68 million and 32 million acres (130,000 km²) of western land. Jackson was criticized at the time for his role in these events, and the criticism has grown over the years. Remini characterizes the Indian Removal era as "one of the unhappiest chapters in American history."[43]

Attack and assassination attempt

Richard Lawrence's attempt on Andrew Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching.

The first attempt to do bodily harm to a President was against Jackson. Jackson ordered the dismissal of Robert B. Randolph from the Navy for embezzlement. On May 6, 1833, Jackson sailed on USS Cygnet to Fredericksburg, Virginia, where he was to lay the cornerstone on a monument near the grave of Mary Ball Washington, George Washington's mother. During a stopover near Alexandria, Virginia, Randolph appeared and struck the President. He then fled the scene with several members of Jackson's party chasing him, including the well known writer Washington Irving. Jackson decided not to press charges.[6]

On January 30 1835, a more serious attack occurred in the Capitol. Jackson was crossing the Capitol Rotunda after the funeral of South Carolina Representative Warren R. Davis when Richard Lawrence approached Jackson. Lawrence aimed two pistols at Jackson, which both misfired. Jackson then attacked Lawrence with his cane, prompting his aides to restrain him. Others present, including Davy Crockett, restrained and disarmed Lawrence, who was clearly deranged.

Richard Lawrence gave the doctors several reasons for the shooting. He had recently lost his job painting houses and somehow blamed Jackson. He claimed that with the President dead, "money would be more plenty"—a reference to Jackson’s struggle with the Bank of the United States—and that he "could not rise until the President fell." Finally, he informed his interrogators that he was actually a deposed English King—Richard III, specifically, dead since 1485—and that Jackson was merely his clerk. He was deemed insane, institutionalized, and never punished for his assassination attempt.

Jackson's statue in the Rotunda is placed in front of the doorway in which the attempt occurred.

Supreme Court appointments

Major Supreme Court cases

States admitted to the Union

Family and personal life

File:Andrew Jackson-1844-2.jpg
Daguerreotype of Andrew Jackson at age 77 or 78 (1844/1845)

Shortly after Jackson first arrived in Nashville in 1788, he took up residence as a boarder with Rachel Stockley Donelson, the widow of John Donelson. Here Jackson became acquainted with their daughter, Rachel Donelson Robards. At the time, Rachel Robards was in an unhappy marriage with Captain Lewis Robards, a man subject to irrational fits of jealous rage. Due to Lewis Robards' temperament, the two were separated in 1790. Shortly after their separation, Robards sent word that he had obtained a divorce. Trusting that the divorce was complete, Jackson and Rachel were married in 1791. Two years later they learned that the divorce had never actually been finalized, making Rachel's marriage to Jackson illegitimate. After the divorce was officially completed, Rachel and Jackson re-married in 1794.[44]

The controversy surrounding their marriage remained a sore point for Jackson, who deeply resented attacks on his wife's honor. Jackson fought 13 duels, many nominally over his wife's honor. Charles Dickinson, the only man Jackson ever killed in a duel, had been goaded into angering Jackson by Jackson's political opponents. In the duel, fought over a horse-racing debt and an insult to his wife on May 30, 1806, Dickinson shot Jackson in the ribs before Jackson returned the fatal shot. The bullet that struck Jackson was so close to his heart that it could never be safely removed. Jackson had been wounded so frequently in duels that it was said he "rattled like a bag of marbles."[45] At times he would cough up blood, and he experienced considerable pain from his wounds for the rest of his life.

Rachel died of unknown causes on December 22, 1828, two weeks after her husband's victory in the election and two months prior to Jackson taking office as President. Jackson blamed John Quincy Adams for Rachel's death because the marital scandal was brought up in the election of 1828. He felt that this had hastened her death and never forgave Adams.

Jackson had two adopted sons, Andrew Jackson Jr., the son of Rachel's brother Severn Donelson, and Lyncoya, a Creek Indian orphan adopted by Jackson after the Creek War. Jackson had planned to have Lyncoya educated at West Point,[5] but he died of tuberculosis in 1828, at the age of sixteen.[46][47]

The Jacksons also acted as guardians for eight other children. John Samuel Donelson, Daniel Smith Donelson and Andrew Jackson Donelson were the sons of Rachel's brother Samuel Donelson, who died in 1804. Andrew Jackson Hutchings was Rachel's orphaned grand nephew. Caroline Butler, Eliza Butler, Edward Butler, and Anthony Butler were the orphaned children of Edward Butler, a family friend. They came to live with the Jacksons after the death of their father.

File:Andrew Jackson Tomb.jpg
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at their home, The Hermitage.

The widower Jackson invited Rachel's niece Emily Donelson to serve as hostess at the White House. Emily was married to Andrew Jackson Donelson, who acted as Jackson's private secretary and in 1856 would run for Vice President on the American Party ticket. The relationship between the President and Emily became strained during the Petticoat Affair, and the two became estranged for over a year. They eventually reconciled and she resumed her duties as White House hostess. Sarah Yorke Jackson, the wife of Andrew Jackson Jr., became co-hostess of the White House in 1834. It was the only time in history when two women simultaneously acted as unofficial First Lady. Sarah took over all hostess duties after Emily died from tuberculosis in 1836.

Jackson remained influential in both national and state politics after retiring to The Hermitage in 1837. Though a slave-holder, Jackson was a firm advocate of the federal union of the states, and declined to give any support to talk of secession.

Jackson was a lean figure standing at 6 feet, 1 inch (1.85 m) tall, and weighing between 130 and 140 pounds (64 kg) on average. Jackson also had an unruly shock of red hair, which had completely grayed by the time he became president at age 61. He had penetrating deep blue eyes. Jackson was one of the more sickly presidents, suffering from chronic headaches, abdominal pains, and a hacking cough, caused by a musket ball in his lung which was never removed, that often brought up blood and sometimes even made his whole body shake. After retiring to Nashville, he enjoyed eight years of retirement and died at The Hermitage on June 8, 1845 at the age of 78, of chronic tuberculosis, "dropsy" and heart failure.

In his will, Jackson left his entire estate to his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr., except for specifically enumerated items that were left to various other friends and family members. Andrew Jackson was a member of the First Presbyterian Church in Nashville.


See also


  1. ^ Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005), p. 8, 35.
  2. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Andrew Jackson". Information Services Branch, State Library of North Carolina.
  3. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Museum of the Waxhaws and Andrew Jackson Memorial". Retrieved 2008-01-13.
    Controversies about Jackson's birthplace went far beyond the dispute between North and South Carolina. Because his origins were humble and obscure compared to those of his predecessors, wild rumors abounded about Jackson's past. Joseph Nathan Kane, in his almanac-style book Facts About the Presidents, lists no fewer than eight localities, including two foreign countries, that were mentioned in the popular press as Jackson's "real" birthplace -- including Ireland, where both of Jackson's parents were born.
  4. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Andrew Jackson". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2007-06-03.
  5. ^ a b Template:Citation/core
  6. ^ a b c Template:Citation/core
  7. ^ Template:Citation/core
  8. ^ Remini (2000), page 51 cites 1820 census, mentions later figures up to 150 without noting a source.
  9. ^ Remini, 118.
  10. ^ Ogg, 66.
  11. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Johnson, Allen (1920). "Jefferson and His Colleagues". Retrieved 2006-10-11.
  12. ^ Template:Citation/core
  13. ^ Adams, Henry. The Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), 599.
  14. ^ Thomas Jefferson to Andrew Jackson, December 18, 1823 Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  15. ^ Remini, Jackson 1:109; Template:Citation/core
  16. ^ Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005), p. 8.
  17. ^ Thomas Jefferson to William H. Crawford, February 15, 1825. Retrieved on 2006-11-21. Transcript.
  18. ^ Peterson, Merrill D.. The Jefferson Image in the American Mind, p. 26.
  19. ^ Peterson, Merrill D.. The Jefferson Image in the American Mind, p. 26. See also: Andrew Stevenson's Eulogy of Andrew Jackson: Template:Citation/core
  20. ^ Template:Citation/core
  21. ^ Nickels, Ilona; "How did Republicans pick the elephant, and Democrats the donkey, to represent their parties?"; "Capitol Questions" feature at; September 5, 2000
  22. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Historical Debt Outstanding - Annual 1791 - 1849". Public Debt Reports. Treasury Direct. Retrieved 2007-11-25. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  23. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Watkins, Thayer. "The Depression of 1837-1844". San José State University Department of Economics. Retrieved 2007-11-25. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  24. ^ a b <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Andrew Jackson's First Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  25. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Andrew Jackson's Second Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  26. ^ <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"Andrew Jackson's Third Annual Message to Congress". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  27. ^ The Spoils System, as the rotation in office system was called, did not originate with Jackson. It originated with New York governors in the late 18th and early 19th centuries (most notably George Clinton and DeWitt Clinton). Thomas Jefferson brought it to the Executive Branch when he replaced Federalist office-holders after becoming President. The Spoils System versus the Merit System. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  28. ^ Jacksonian Democracy: The Presidency of Andrew Jackson. Retrieved on 2006-11-21.
  29. ^ a b Digital History
  30. ^ Sparknotes
  31. ^ Ogg, 164.
  32. ^ Martin Van Buren biography at Encyclopedia Americana
  33. ^ Template:Citation/core. First published in 1860.
  34. ^ Syrett, 36. See also: <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>"President Jackson's Proclamation Regarding Nullification, December 10, 1832". Retrieved 2006-08-10.
  35. ^ For an attack on Jackson see Cave (2003). 65(6): 1330-1353. For a defense see Remini (2001).
  36. ^ Andrew Jackson: First Annual Message
  37. ^ Stockholms Fria Tidning: Svart vildavästernhistoria, by Mattias Gardell
  38. ^ Cave (2003); Remini (1988).
  39. ^ Historical Documents - The Indian Removal Act of 1830
  40. ^ PBS
  41. ^ Indian Removal
  42. ^ PBS: Judgement Day. “Indian removal.” (accessed January 12, 2008).
  43. ^ Remini (2001).
  44. ^ Template:Citation/core
  45. ^ Template:Citation/core
  46. ^ Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson. From: National First Ladies' Library. Retrieved November 7, 2007.
  47. ^ Rachel Jackson. From: Retrieved November 7, 2007.

Secondary sources

  • Brands, H. W. Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times (2005), biography emphasizing military career
  • Brustein, Andrew. The Passions of Andrew Jackson. (2003).
  • Bugg Jr. James L. ed. Jacksonian Democracy: Myth or Reality? (1952), excerpts from scholars
  • Cave, Alfred A.. Abuse of Power: Andrew Jackson and the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (2003)
  • Gammon, Samuel Rhea. The Presidential Campaign of 1832 (1922)
  • Hammond, Bray. Andrew Jackson's Battle with the "Money Power" (1958) ch 8, of his Banks and Politics in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War (1954); Pulitzer prize.
  • Hofstatder, Richard. The American Political Tradition (1948), chapter on Jackson.
  • James, Marquis. The Life of Andrew Jackson Combines two books: The Border Captain and Andrew Jackson: Portrait of a President; winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Biography.
  • Latner Richard B. The Presidency of Andrew Jackson: White House Politics, 1820-1837 (1979), standard survey.
  • Ogg, Frederic Austin ; The Reign of Andrew Jackson: A Chronicle of the Frontier in Politics 1919. short popular survey online at Gutenberg
  • Parton, James. Life of Andrew Jackson (1860). Volume I, Volume III.
  • Ratner, Lorman A. Andrew Jackson and His Tennessee Lieutenants: A Study in Political Culture (1997)
  • Remini, Robert V.. The Life of Andrew Jackson. Abridgment of Remini's 3-volume monumental biography, (1988)
    • Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821 (1977); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832 (1981); Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Democracy, 1833-1845 (1984)
  • Remini, Robert V.. The Legacy of Andrew Jackson: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal, and Slavery (1988)
  • Remini, Robert V.. Andrew Jackson and his Indian Wars (2001)
  • Remini, Robert V.. "Andrew Jackson," American National Biography (2000)
  • Rowland, Dunbar. Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or, the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815 (1926)
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. The Age of Jackson. (1945). Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for History. history of ideas of the era
  • Charles Grier Sellers, Jr. "Andrew Jackson versus the Historians," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 4. (Mar., 1958), pp. 615-634. in JSTOR
  • Syrett, Harold C. Andrew Jackson: His Contribution to the American Tradition (1953)
  • Taylor, George Rogers, ed. Jackson Versus Biddle: The Struggle over the Second Bank of the United States (1949), excerpts from primary and secondary sources
  • Ward, John William. Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age (1962) how writers saw him
  • Wilentz, Sean. Andrew Jackson (2005) short biography

External links

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