# Blackjack card counting systems

Blackjack, or Twenty-one, is the most popular casino game. With the development of the personal computer, players, including mathematically skilled individuals who had used brute force methods to develop systems to win at the game, found that computer-developed systems provided a distinct advantage.

In the 1960's, blackjack became the most popular of casino games after computer-based systems were developed which gave an edge to the player. Various mathematicians and gamblers including Edward Thorp and Les Golden have refined these systems.[1][2][3][4][5]

There are tables that summarize the most popular and most powerful systems. References are provided to the developers of the systems and the most authoritative websites which discuss their attributes.

The numbers in the tables are the values assigned to the given card. In blackjack, 10s, Jacks, Queens, and Kings are all considered "10-value" cards. The total "count" of a hand is the arithmetic sum of the values assigned to the cards being held in the hand.

## References

1. ^ Golden, Les (2010). “Countering the Casino Countering of Counters: The Golden Diagram to the Rescue,” Bluff Europe, June, p. 84-85
2. ^ Golden, Les (2011). “Trust Me: An Undetectable Winning System For Blackjack! ,” Bluff Europe, March, p. 94-95
3. ^ Golden, Leslie M. (2011). “An Analysis of the Disadvantage to Players of Multiple Decks in the Game of 21.” The Mathematical Scientist, 32, 2, p. 57-69
4. ^ http://www.appliedprobability.org/content.aspx?Group=tms&Page=tmsabstracts
5. ^ Golden, Les (2011). “Stepping Out With My Baby: The Stepwise Betting Strategy,” Bluff Europe, April, p. 92-93