Peter of Spain

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Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus) is a thirteenth century author of a standard textbook on logic, the Tractatus, which was widely published in Europe for many centuries. His works on logic are typical examples of the type of manuals that started to emerge in the environment of twelfth- and thirteenth-century logic teaching. His Masters include Johannes Pagus (who is supposed to have been a Master of Arts in Paris in the 1220's) and Hervaeus Brito (who may have been a Master of Arts either before 1229). Besides these direct influences, the sources for Peter's works on logic are the Logica Vetus of Beothius and Aristotle, and authorities in the field of grammar such as Priscian and Donatus.



The Tractatus, thought to have been written between 1230 and 1245, has universally been recognised as a work by Peter. Another work that has been identified as his is a Syncategoremata (Treatise on Syncategorematic Terms), probably written sometime between 1235 and 1245. Considering the fact that in all the thirteenth-century manuscripts the Syncategoreumata directly follow the Tractatus, and the number of similarities between doctrinal aspects of these two works on logic, it is almost certain that they were written by the same author. Both works seem to have originated from Southern France or Northern Spain, the region where we also find the earliest commentaries on these treatises.


Primary sources

  • Tractatus, (also known as Summulae logicales'). Critical edition with an introduction by L.M. de Rijk, Assen, 1972.
  • Syncategoreumata, critical edition with an Introduction and Indexes by L.M. de Rijk, with an English Translation by Joke Spruyt, Leiden/Köln/New York, 1992.

Secondary sources

  • Braakhuis, H.A.G., 1979. De 13de Eeuwse Tractaten over Syncategorematische Termen. Vol. I: Inleidende Studie. Vol. II: Uitgave van Nicolaas van Parijs' Syncategoreumata. Nijmegen (diss.).
  • Kneale, William and Kneale, Martha, 1978. The Development of Logic, Oxford.
  • Kneepkens, C.H., 1987. Het iudicium constructionis. Het leerstuk van de constructio in de 2de helft van de 12de eeuw. Een verkennende inleidende studie gevolgd door kritische uitgaven van Robert van Parijs, Summa "Breve sit" en Robert Blund, Summa in arte grammatica en door een werkuitgave van Petrus Hispanus (non-papa), Summa "Absoluta cuiuslibet". Nijmegen (diss.).
  • de Libera, A., 1982. The Oxford and Paris Traditions in Logic. The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, edited by Norman Kretzmann, Anthony Kenny and Jan Pinborg. Cambridge, pp. 174-187
  • de Libera, A., 1984. Les Appellationes de Jean le Page. Archives d'histoire doctrinale et littéraire du moyen-âge, 51: 193-255.
  • Nuchelmans, Gabriel, 1988. The Distinction actus exercitus/actus significatus in Medieval Semantics. Meaning and Inference in Medieval Philosophy. Studies in memory of Jan Pinborg. Edited by Norman Kretzmann. Synthese Historical Library. Studies and Texts in the History of Logic and Philosophy, Vol. 32. Dordrecht, pp. 57-90.
  • d'Ors, Angel, 1997. Petrus Hispanus O.P., Auctor Summularum. Vivarium, 35: 21-71.
  • d'Ors, Angel, 2001. Petrus Hispanus O.P, Auctor Summularum(II): Further documents and problems. Vivarium, 39: 209-254.
  • d'Ors, Angel, 2003. Petrus Hispanus O.P, Auctor Summularum(III): "Petrus Alfonsi" or "Petrus Ferrandi"?, Vivarium, 41: 249-303.
  • Pinborg, Jan, 1972. Logik und Semantik im Mittelalter. Ein Überblick. Stuttgart-Bad Canstadt: Fromann-Holzboog.
  • de Rijk, L.M., 1962-67. Logica Modernorum. A Contribution to the History of Early Terminist Logic. Vol. I: On the Twelfth Century Theories of Fallacies. Vol. II.1: The Origin and Early Development of the Theory of Supposition. Vol. II.2: Texts and Indices. Assen.
  • de Rijk, L.M., 1968. On the Genuine Text of Peter of Spain's Summulae logicales I. General problems concerning possible interpolations in the manuscripts. Vivarium, 6: 1-34.
  • de Rijk, L.M., 1971. The Development of Suppositio Naturalis in Mediaeval Logic I. Natural supposition as non-contextual supposition. Vivarium, 9: 71-107.
  • de Rijk, L.M., 1982. The Origins of the Theory of the Properties of Terms. The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, edited by Norman Kretzmann, Anthony Kenny and Jan Pinborg. Cambridge, pp. 161-173.
  • de Rijk, L.M., 1985. La philosophie au moyen-âge, Leiden/Köln/New York.
  • Spruyt, Joke, 1989. Peter of Spain on Composition and Negation. Text. Translation. Commentary, Leiden (diss.).
  • Spruyt, Joke, 1993. Thirteenth-Century Positions on the Rule "Ex impossibili sequitur quidlibet". Argumentationstheorie. Scholastische Forschungen zu den logischen und semantische regeln korrekten Folgerns. Ed. Klaus Jacobi. Leiden/ Köln /New York, pp. 161-193.
  • Spruyt, Joke, 1994. Thirteenth-Century Discussions on Modal Terms. Vivarium, 32: 196-226.
  • Tugwell, Simon O.P., 1999. Petrus Hispanus: Comments on Some Proposed Identifications. Vivarium, 37: 103-113.
  • Tugwell, Simon O.P., 2006. Auctor Summularum, Petrus Hispanus OP Stellensis? Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum, 76: 103-115.