Difference between revisions of "Directory:Jon Awbrey/Papers/Information = Comprehension × Extension"

MyWikiBiz, Author Your Legacy — Monday December 05, 2022
Jump to navigationJump to search
(markup)
(update)
 
(67 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{DISPLAYTITLE:Information = Comprehension × Extension}}
 
{{DISPLAYTITLE:Information = Comprehension × Extension}}
Another angle from which to approach the incidence of [[sign]]s and [[inquiry]] is by way of [[Charles Sanders Peirce|Peirce]]'s "[[laws of information]]" and the corresponding theory of information that he developed from the time of his lectures on the "Logic of Science" at Harvard University (1865) and the Lowell Institute (1866).
+
'''Author: [[User:Jon Awbrey|Jon Awbrey]]'''
  
When it comes to the supposed reciprocity between [[extension (logic)|extension]]s and [[intension (logic)|intension]]s, Peirce, of course, has another idea, and I would say a better idea, in part, because it forms the occasion for him to bring in his new-fangled notion of "[[information]]" to mediate the otherwise static dualism between the other two.  The development of this novel idea brings Peirce to enunciate this formula:
+
Another angle from which to approach the incidence of signs and [[inquiry]] is by way of Peirce's “laws of information” and the corresponding theory of information that he developed from the time of his lectures on the “Logic of Science” at Harvard University (1865) and the Lowell Institute (1866).
 +
 
 +
When it comes to the supposed reciprocity between extensions and intensions, Peirce, of course, has another idea, and I would say a better idea, in part, because it forms the occasion for him to bring in his new-fangled notion of “information” to mediate the otherwise static dualism between the other two.  The development of this novel idea brings Peirce to enunciate this formula:
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
| align="center" | <math>\operatorname{Information} = \operatorname{Comprehension} \times \operatorname{Extension}</math>
+
| align="center" | <math>\mathrm{Information} = \mathrm{Comprehension} \times \mathrm{Extension}\!</math>
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
But comprehending what in the world that might mean is a much longer story, the end of which your present teller has yet to reach.  So, this time around, I will take up the story near the end of the beginning of the author's own telling of it, for no better reason than that's where I myself initially came in, or, at least, where it all started making any kind of sense to me.  And from this point we will find it easy enough to flash both backward and forward, to and fro, as the occasions arise for doing so.
 
But comprehending what in the world that might mean is a much longer story, the end of which your present teller has yet to reach.  So, this time around, I will take up the story near the end of the beginning of the author's own telling of it, for no better reason than that's where I myself initially came in, or, at least, where it all started making any kind of sense to me.  And from this point we will find it easy enough to flash both backward and forward, to and fro, as the occasions arise for doing so.
  
==Selections from Peirce's "Logic of Science" (1865&ndash;1866)==
+
==Selections from Peirce's “Logic of Science” (1865&ndash;1866)==
  
 
===Selection 1===
 
===Selection 1===
Line 18: Line 20:
 
<p>Let us now return to the information.  The information of a term is the measure of its superfluous comprehension.  That is to say that the proper office of the comprehension is to determine the extension of the term.  For instance, you and I are men because we possess those attributes &mdash; having two legs, being rational, &c. &mdash; which make up the comprehension of ''man''.  Every addition to the comprehension of a term lessens its extension up to a certain point, after that further additions increase the information instead.</p>
 
<p>Let us now return to the information.  The information of a term is the measure of its superfluous comprehension.  That is to say that the proper office of the comprehension is to determine the extension of the term.  For instance, you and I are men because we possess those attributes &mdash; having two legs, being rational, &c. &mdash; which make up the comprehension of ''man''.  Every addition to the comprehension of a term lessens its extension up to a certain point, after that further additions increase the information instead.</p>
  
<p>Thus, let us commence with the term ''colour'';  add to the comprehension of this term, that of ''red''.  ''Red colour'' has considerably less extension than ''colour'';  add to this the comprehension of ''dark'';  ''dark red colour'' has still less [extension].  Add to this the comprehension of ''non-blue'' &mdash; ''non-blue dark red colour'' has the same extension as ''dark red colour'', so that the ''non-blue'' here performs a work of supererogation;  it tells us that no ''dark red colour'' is blue, but does none of the proper business of connotation, that of diminishing the extension at all.  Thus information measures the superfluous comprehension.  And, hence, whenever we make a symbol to express any thing or any attribute we cannot make it so empty that it shall have no superfluous comprehension. I am going, next, to show that inference is symbolization and that the puzzle of the validity of scientific inference lies merely in this superfluous comprehension and is therefore entirely removed by a consideration of the laws of ''information''.</p>
+
<p>Thus, let us commence with the term ''colour'';  add to the comprehension of this term, that of ''red''.  ''Red colour'' has considerably less extension than ''colour'';  add to this the comprehension of ''dark'';  ''dark red colour'' has still less [extension].  Add to this the comprehension of ''non-blue'' &mdash; ''non-blue dark red colour'' has the same extension as ''dark red colour'', so that the ''non-blue'' here performs a work of supererogation;  it tells us that no ''dark red colour'' is blue, but does none of the proper business of connotation, that of diminishing the extension at all.  Thus information measures the superfluous comprehension.  And, hence, whenever we make a symbol to express any thing or any attribute we cannot make it so empty that it shall have no superfluous comprehension.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>I am going, next, to show that inference is symbolization and that the puzzle of the validity of scientific inference lies merely in this superfluous comprehension and is therefore entirely removed by a consideration of the laws of ''information''.</p>
  
 
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 467).</p>
 
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 467).</p>
Line 65: Line 69:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>Accordingly, if we are engaged in symbolizing and we come to such a proposition as "Neat, swine, sheep, and deer are herbivorous", we know firstly that the disjunctive term may be replaced by a true symbol.  But suppose we know of no symbol for neat, swine, sheep, and deer except cloven-hoofed animals.  There is but one objection to substituting this for the disjunctive term;  it is that we should, then, say more than we have observed.  In short, it has a superfluous information.  But we have already seen that this is an objection which must always stand in the way of taking symbols.  If therefore we are to use symbols at all we must use them notwithstanding that.  Now all thinking is a process of symbolization, for the conceptions of the understanding are symbols in the strict sense.  Unless, therefore, we are to give up thinking altogeher we must admit the validity of induction.  But even to doubt is to think.  So we cannot give up thinking and the validity of induction must be admitted.</p>
+
<p>Accordingly, if we are engaged in symbolizing and we come to such a proposition as &ldquo;Neat, swine, sheep, and deer are herbivorous&rdquo;, we know firstly that the disjunctive term may be replaced by a true symbol.  But suppose we know of no symbol for neat, swine, sheep, and deer except cloven-hoofed animals.  There is but one objection to substituting this for the disjunctive term;  it is that we should, then, say more than we have observed.  In short, it has a superfluous information.  But we have already seen that this is an objection which must always stand in the way of taking symbols.  If therefore we are to use symbols at all we must use them notwithstanding that.  Now all thinking is a process of symbolization, for the conceptions of the understanding are symbols in the strict sense.  Unless, therefore, we are to give up thinking altogeher we must admit the validity of induction.  But even to doubt is to think.  So we cannot give up thinking and the validity of induction must be admitted.</p>
  
 
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 469).</p>
 
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 469).</p>
Line 99: Line 103:
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Discussion===
+
===Discussion 1===
  
 
At this point in his discussion, Peirce is relating the nature of inference, inquiry, and information to the character of the signs that are invoked in support of the overall process in question, a process that he is presently describing as ''symbolization''.
 
At this point in his discussion, Peirce is relating the nature of inference, inquiry, and information to the character of the signs that are invoked in support of the overall process in question, a process that he is presently describing as ''symbolization''.
Line 110: Line 114:
 
|
 
|
 
<math>\begin{array}{lll}
 
<math>\begin{array}{lll}
t_1 & = & \operatorname{spherical}
+
t_1 & = & \mathrm{spherical}
 
\\
 
\\
t_2 & = & \operatorname{bright}
+
t_2 & = & \mathrm{bright}
 
\\
 
\\
t_3 & = & \operatorname{fragrant}
+
t_3 & = & \mathrm{fragrant}
 
\\
 
\\
t_4 & = & \operatorname{juicy}
+
t_4 & = & \mathrm{juicy}
 
\\
 
\\
t_5 & = & \operatorname{tropical}
+
t_5 & = & \mathrm{tropical}
 
\\
 
\\
t_6 & = & \operatorname{fruit}
+
t_6 & = & \mathrm{fruit}
 
\end{array}</math>
 
\end{array}</math>
 
|}
 
|}
Line 133: Line 137:
 
|}
 
|}
  
What on earth could Peirce mean by saying that such a term is "not a true symbol", or that it is of "no use whatever"?
+
What on earth could Peirce mean by saying that such a term is &ldquo;not a true symbol&rdquo;, or that it is &ldquo;of no use whatever&rdquo;?
  
 
In particular, let us consider the following statement:
 
In particular, let us consider the following statement:
Line 142: Line 146:
 
|}
 
|}
  
That is to say, if something <math>x\!</math> is said to be <math>z,\!</math> then we may guess fairly surely that <math>x\!</math> is really an orange, in other words, that <math>x\!</math> has all of the additional features that would be summed up quite succinctly in the much more constrained term <math>y,\!</math> where <math>y\!</math> means "an orange".
+
That is to say, if something <math>x\!</math> is said to be <math>z,\!</math> then we may guess fairly surely that <math>x\!</math> is really an orange, in other words, that <math>x\!</math> has all of the additional features that would be summed up quite succinctly in the much more constrained term <math>y,\!</math> where <math>y\!</math> means &ldquo;an orange&rdquo;.
  
Figure&nbsp;1 depicts the situation that is being contemplated here.
+
Figure&nbsp;1 shows the implication ordering of logical terms in the form of a ''lattice diagram''.
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
+
{| align="center" border="0" cellspacing="10" style="text-align:center; width:100%"
| align="center" |
+
| [[File:ICE Figure 1.jpg|center]]
<pre>
+
|-
o---------------------------------------------------------------------o
+
| height="20px" | <math>\text{Figure 1.} ~~ \text{Conjunctive Term}~ z, ~\text{Taken as Predicate}\!</math>
|                                                                     |
 
|  t_1  t_2        t_5  t_6                                        |
 
|  o    o    ...   o    o                                        |
 
|     *    *        *    *                                          |
 
|       *  *      *  *                                            |
 
|        *  *    *  *                                              |
 
|          * *  * *                                                |
 
|            ** **                                                  |
 
|              o z = spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit  |
 
|              * *                                                  |
 
|              *  *  Rule                                          |
 
|              *    * y=>z                                          |
 
|              *      *                                            |
 
|              *        *                                          |
 
|          Fact *          o y = orange                              |
 
|          x=>z *        *                                          |
 
|              *      *                                            |
 
|              *    * Case                                          |
 
|              *  *  x=>y                                          |
 
|              * *                                                  |
 
|              o                                                    |
 
|              x = subject                                          |
 
|                                                                    |
 
o---------------------------------------------------------------------o
 
Figure 1. Conjunctive Term z, Taken as Predicate
 
</pre>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
What Peirce is saying about <math>z\!</math> not being a genuinely useful symbol can be explained in terms of the gap between the logical conjunction <math>z,\!</math> in lattice terms, the ''greatest lower bound'' (''glb'') of the conjoined terms, <math>z = \operatorname{glb} \{ t_1, t_2, t_3, t_4, t_5, t_6 \},</math> and what we might regard as the ''natural conjunction'' or the ''natural glb'' of these terms, namely, <math>y := \text{an orange}.\!</math>  That is to say, there is an extra measure of constraint that goes into forming the natural kinds lattice from the free lattice that logic and set theory would otherwise impose.  The local manifestations of this global information are meted out over the structure of the natural lattice by just such abductive gaps as the one between <math>z\!</math> and <math>y.\!</math>
+
What Peirce is saying about <math>z\!</math> not being a genuinely useful symbol can be explained in terms of the gap between the logical conjunction <math>z,\!</math> in lattice terms, the ''greatest lower bound'' (''glb'') of the conjoined terms, <math>z = \mathrm{glb} \{ t_1, t_2, t_3, t_4, t_5, t_6 \},\!</math> and what we might regard as the ''natural conjunction'' or the ''natural glb'' of these terms, namely, <math>{y := \text{an orange}}.\!</math>  That is to say, there is an extra measure of constraint that goes into forming the natural kinds lattice from the free lattice that logic and set theory would otherwise impose.  The local manifestations of this global information are meted out over the structure of the natural lattice by just such abductive gaps as the one between <math>z\!</math> and <math>y.\!</math>
  
===Discussion===
+
===Discussion 2===
  
Let us now consider Peirce's alternate example of a disjunctive term, "neat, swine, sheep, deer".
+
Let's examine Peirce's second example of a disjunctive term &mdash; ''neat, swine, sheep, deer'' &mdash; within the style of lattice framework that we used before.
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
Line 188: Line 166:
 
<p>Hence if we find out that neat are herbivorous, swine are herbivorous, sheep are herbivorous, and deer are herbivorous;  we may be sure that there is some class of animals which covers all these, all the members of which are herbivorous.</p>
 
<p>Hence if we find out that neat are herbivorous, swine are herbivorous, sheep are herbivorous, and deer are herbivorous;  we may be sure that there is some class of animals which covers all these, all the members of which are herbivorous.</p>
  
<p>Accordingly, if we are engaged in symbolizing and we come to such a proposition as "Neat, swine, sheep, and deer are herbivorous", we know firstly that the disjunctive term may be replaced by a true symbol.  But suppose we know of no symbol for neat, swine, sheep, and deer except cloven-hoofed animals.</p>
+
<p>Accordingly, if we are engaged in symbolizing and we come to such a proposition as &ldquo;Neat, swine, sheep, and deer are herbivorous&rdquo;, we know firstly that the disjunctive term may be replaced by a true symbol.  But suppose we know of no symbol for neat, swine, sheep, and deer except cloven-hoofed animals.</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
This is apparently a stock example of inductive reasoning that Peirce borrows from traditional discussions, so let us pass over the circumstance that modern taxonomies may classify swine as omniverous.
+
This is apparently a stock example of inductive reasoning that Peirce borrows from traditional discussions, so let us pass over the circumstance that modern taxonomies may classify swine as omnivores.
  
 
In view of the analogical symmetries that the disjunctive term shares with the conjunctive case, I think that we can run through this example in fairly short order.  We have an aggregation over four terms:
 
In view of the analogical symmetries that the disjunctive term shares with the conjunctive case, I think that we can run through this example in fairly short order.  We have an aggregation over four terms:
Line 198: Line 176:
 
|
 
|
 
<math>\begin{array}{lll}
 
<math>\begin{array}{lll}
s_1 & = & \operatorname{neat}
+
s_1 & = & \mathrm{neat}
 
\\
 
\\
s_2 & = & \operatorname{swine}
+
s_2 & = & \mathrm{swine}
 
\\
 
\\
s_3 & = & \operatorname{sheep}
+
s_3 & = & \mathrm{sheep}
 
\\
 
\\
s_4 & = & \operatorname{deer}
+
s_4 & = & \mathrm{deer}
 
\end{array}</math>
 
\end{array}</math>
 
|}
 
|}
Line 213: Line 191:
 
|
 
|
 
<math>\begin{array}{lll}
 
<math>\begin{array}{lll}
u & = & ((s_1)(s_2)(s_3)(s_4))
+
u & = & \texttt{((} s_1 \texttt{)(} s_2 \texttt{)(} s_3 \texttt{)(} s_4 \texttt{))}
 
\end{array}</math>
 
\end{array}</math>
 
|}
 
|}
Line 219: Line 197:
 
Figure 2 depicts the situation that we have before us.
 
Figure 2 depicts the situation that we have before us.
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
+
{| align="center" border="0" cellspacing="10" style="text-align:center; width:100%"
| align="center" |
+
| [[File:ICE Figure 2.jpg|center]]
<pre>
+
|-
o---------------------------------------------------------------------o
+
| height="20px" | <math>\text{Figure 2.} ~~ \text{Disjunctive Term}~ u, ~\text{Taken as Subject}\!</math>
|                                                                     |
 
|               w = herbivorous                                      |
 
|              o                                                    |
 
|              * *    Rule                                          |
 
|              *  *  v=>w                                          |
 
|              *    *                                              |
 
|              *      *                                            |
 
|              *        *                                          |
 
|          Fact *          o v = cloven-hoofed                      |
 
|         u=>w *        *                                          |
 
|              *      *                                            |
 
|              *    * Case                                          |
 
|              *  *  u=>v                                          |
 
|              * *                                                  |
 
|              o u = ((neat)(swine)(sheep)(deer))                    |
 
|            ** **                                                  |
 
|          * *  * *                                                |
 
|        *  *    *  *                                              |
 
|      *  *      *  *                                            |
 
|    *    *        *    *                                          |
 
|  o    o          o    o                                        |
 
|  s_1  s_2        s_3  s_4                                        |
 
|                                                                    |
 
o---------------------------------------------------------------------o
 
Figure 2. Disjunctive Term u, Taken as Subject
 
</pre>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
In a similar but dual fashion to the preceding consideration, there is a gap between the the logical disjunction <math>u,\!</math> in lattice terminology, the ''least upper bound'' (''lub'') of the disjoined terms, <math>u = \operatorname{lub} \{ s_1, s_2, s_3, s_4 \},</math> and what we might regard as the ''natural disjunction'' or the ''natural lub'', namely, <math>v := \text{cloven-hoofed}.\!</math>
+
Here we have a situation that is dual to the structure of the conjunctive example.&nbsp; There is a gap between the logical disjunction <math>u,\!</math> in lattice terminology, the ''least upper bound'' (''lub'') of the disjoined terms, <math>u = \mathrm{lub} \{ s_1, s_2, s_3, s_4 \},\!</math> and what we might regard as the natural disjunction or natural lub of these terms, namely, <math>v,\!</math> ''cloven-hoofed''.
  
Once again, the sheer implausibility of imagining that the disjunctive term <math>u\!</math> would ever be embedded exactly as such in a lattice of natural kinds, leads to the evident ''naturalness'' of the induction to <math>v \Rightarrow w,</math> namely, the rule that cloven-hoofed animals are herbivorous.
+
Once again, the sheer implausibility of imagining that the disjunctive term <math>u\!</math> would ever be embedded exactly as such in a lattice of natural kinds leads to the evident ''naturalness'' of the induction to <math>v \Rightarrow w,\!</math> namely, the rule that cloven-hoofed animals are herbivorous.
  
===Discussion===
+
===Discussion 3===
 +
 
 +
Peirce identifies inference with a process he describes as ''symbolization''.  Let us consider what that might imply.
 +
 
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>I am going, next, to show that inference is symbolization and that the puzzle of the validity of scientific inference lies merely in this superfluous comprehension and is therefore entirely removed by a consideration of the laws of ''information''.  [[Information_%3D_Comprehension_%C3%97_Extension#Selection_1|(467)]].</p>
 +
|}
  
I continue with the sketching of my incidental musings on the theme of ''approximate inference rules''.
+
Even if it were only a weaker analogy between inference and symbolization, a principle of logical continuity &mdash; what in physics is called a ''correspondence principle'' &mdash; would suggest parallels between steps of reasoning in the neighborhood of exact inferences and signs in the vicinity of genuine symbols.  This would lead us to expect a correspondence between degrees of inference and degrees of symbolization that extends from exact to approximate or ''non-demonstrative'' inferences and from genuine to approximate or ''degenerate'' symbols.
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
Line 265: Line 224:
 
<p>In the first place there are likenesses or copies &mdash; such as ''statues'', ''pictures'', ''emblems'', ''hieroglyphics'', and the like.  Such representations stand for their objects only so far as they have an actual resemblance to them &mdash; that is agree with them in some characters.  The peculiarity of such representations is that they do not determine their objects &mdash; they stand for anything more or less;  for they stand for whatever they resemble and they resemble everything more or less.</p>
 
<p>In the first place there are likenesses or copies &mdash; such as ''statues'', ''pictures'', ''emblems'', ''hieroglyphics'', and the like.  Such representations stand for their objects only so far as they have an actual resemblance to them &mdash; that is agree with them in some characters.  The peculiarity of such representations is that they do not determine their objects &mdash; they stand for anything more or less;  for they stand for whatever they resemble and they resemble everything more or less.</p>
  
<p>The second kind of representations are such as are set up by a convention of men or a decree of God.  Such are ''tallies'', ''proper names'', &c.  The peculiarity of these ''conventional signs'' is that they represent no character of their objects.  Likenesses denote nothing in particular;  ''conventional signs'' connote nothing in particular.</p>
+
<p>The second kind of representations are such as are set up by a convention of men or a decree of God.  Such are ''tallies'', ''proper names'', &c.  The peculiarity of these ''conventional signs'' is that they represent no character of their objects.</p>
  
<p>The third and last kind of representations are ''symbols'' or general representations.  They connote attributes and so connote them as to determine what they denote. To this class belong all ''words'' and all ''conceptions''.  Most combinations of words are also symbols.  A proposition, an argument, even a whole book may be, and should be, a single symbol.</p>
+
<p>Likenesses denote nothing in particular; ''conventional signs'' connote nothing in particular.</p>
  
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 467&ndash;468).</p>
+
<p>The third and last kind of representations are ''symbols'' or general representations.  They connote attributes and so connote them as to determine what they denote.  To this class belong all ''words'' and all ''conceptions''.  Most combinations of words are also symbols.  A proposition, an argument, even a whole book may be, and should be, a single symbol.  [[Information_%3D_Comprehension_%C3%97_Extension#Selection_2|(467&ndash;468)]].</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Aside from Aristotle, the influence of Kant on Peirce is very strongly marked in these earliest expositions.  The invocations of "conceptions of the understanding", the "use" of concepts and thus of symbols in reducing the manifold of extension, and the not so subtle hint of the synthetic à priori in Peirce's discussion, not only of natural kinds, but of the kinds of signs that lead up to genuine symbols, can all be recognized as being reprises of dominant, pervasive Kantian themes.
+
In addition to Aristotle, the influence of Kant on Peirce is very strongly marked in these earliest expositions.  The invocations of &ldquo;conceptions of the understanding&rdquo;, the &ldquo;use of concepts&rdquo; and thus of symbols in reducing the manifold of extension, and the not so subtle hint of the synthetic à priori in Peirce's discussion, not only of natural kinds but also of the kinds of signs that lead up to genuine symbols, can all be recognized as pervasive Kantian themes.
  
In order to draw out these themes, and to see how Peirce was led and often inspired to develop their main motives, let us bring together our previous Figures, abstracting away from all of those distractingly ephemeral details about defunct stockyards full of imaginary beasts, and see if we can see what is really going to go on here.
+
In order to draw out these themes and see how Peirce was led to develop their leading ideas, let us bring together our previous Figures, abstracting from their concrete details, and see if we can figure out what is going on here.
  
Figure&nbsp;3 shows an abductive step of inquiry, as it is taken on the cue of an iconic sign.
+
Figure&nbsp;3 shows an abductive step of inquiry, as taken on the cue of an iconic sign.
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
+
{| align="center" border="0" cellspacing="10" style="text-align:center; width:100%"
| align="center" |
+
| [[File:ICE Figure 3.jpg|center]]
<pre>
+
|-
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
+
| height="20px" | <math>\text{Figure 3.} ~~ \text{Conjunctive Predicate}~ z, ~\text{Abduction of Case}~ \texttt{(} x \texttt{(} y \texttt{))}\!</math>
|                                                           |
 
| t_1  t_2        t_3  t_4                              |
 
|  o    o          o    o                              |
 
|    *    *        *    *                                |
 
|      *  *      *  *                                  |
 
|        *  *    *  *                                    |
 
|          * *  * *                                      |
 
|            ** **                                        |
 
|               o z = icon?                                |
 
|              * *                                        |
 
|              *  *  Rule                                |
 
|              *    * y=>z                                |
 
|              *      *                                  |
 
|              *        *                                |
 
|          Fact *          o y = object?                  |
 
|          x=>z *        *                                |
 
|              *      *                                  |
 
|              *    * Case                                |
 
|              *  *  x=>y                                |
 
|              * *                                        |
 
|              o                                          |
 
|              x = subject                                |
 
|                                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
Figure 3. Conjunctive Predicate z, Abduction of Case (x (y))
 
</pre>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Figure&nbsp;4 depicts an inductive step of inquiry, as it is taken on the cue of an indicial sign.
+
Figure&nbsp;4 shows an inductive step of inquiry, as taken on the cue of an indicial sign.
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
+
{| align="center" border="0" cellspacing="10" style="text-align:center; width:100%"
| align="center" |
+
| [[File:ICE Figure 4.jpg|center]]
<pre>
+
|-
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
+
| height="20px" | <math>\text{Figure 4.} ~~ \text{Disjunctive Subject}~ u, ~\text{Induction of Rule}~ \texttt{(} v \texttt{(} w \texttt{))}\!</math>
|                                                           |
 
|               w = predicate                              |
 
|              o                                          |
 
|               * *    Rule                                |
 
|              *  *  v=>w                                |
 
|              *    *                                    |
 
|              *      *                                  |
 
|              *        *                                |
 
|          Fact *          o v = object?                  |
 
|          u=>w *        *                                |
 
|              *      *                                  |
 
|              *    * Case                                |
 
|              *  *  u=>v                                |
 
|              * *                                        |
 
|              o u = index?                                |
 
|            ** **                                        |
 
|          * *  * *                                      |
 
|        *  *    *  *                                    |
 
|      *  *      *  *                                  |
 
|    *    *        *    *                                |
 
|  o    o          o    o                              |
 
|  s_1  s_2        s_3  s_4                              |
 
|                                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
Figure 4. Disjunctive Subject u, Induction of Rule (v (w))
 
</pre>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
I have up to this point followed Peirce's suggestions somewhat unthinkingly, but I can tell you now that previous unfortunate experience has led me concurrently to remain suspicious of all attempts to conflate the types of signs and the roles of terms in arguments quite so facilely, so I will keep that as a topic for future inquiry.
+
===Discussion 4===
  
===Selection 7===
+
There are still many things that puzzle me about Peirce's account at this point.  I indicated a few of them by means of question marks at several places in the last two Figures.  There is nothing for it but returning to the text and trying once more to follow the reasoning.
 +
 
 +
Let's go back to Peirce's example of abductive inference and try to get a clearer picture of why he connects it with conjunctive terms and iconic signs.
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
Figure&nbsp;1 shows the implication ordering of logical terms in the form of a ''lattice diagram''.
 +
 
 +
{| align="center" border="0" cellspacing="10" style="text-align:center; width:100%"
 +
| [[File:ICE Figure 1.jpg|center]]
 +
|-
 +
| height="20px" | <math>\text{Figure 1.} ~~ \text{Conjunctive Term}~ z, ~\text{Taken as Predicate}\!</math>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
The relationship between conjunctive terms and iconic signs may be understood as follows.  If there is anything that has all the properties described by the conjunctive term &mdash; ''spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit'' &mdash; then sign users may use that thing as an icon of an orange, precisely by virtue of the fact that it shares those properties with an orange.  But the only natural examples of things that have all those properties are oranges themselves, so the only thing that can serve as a natural icon of an orange by virtue of those very properties is that orange itself or another orange.
 +
 
 +
===Discussion 5===
 +
 
 +
Let's stay with Peirce's example of abductive inference a little longer and try to clear up the more troublesome confusions that tend to arise.
 +
 
 +
Figure&nbsp;1 shows the implication ordering of logical terms in the form of a ''lattice diagram''.
 +
 
 +
{| align="center" border="0" cellspacing="10" style="text-align:center; width:100%"
 +
| [[File:ICE Figure 1.jpg|center]]
 +
|-
 +
| height="20px" | <math>\text{Figure 1.} ~~ \text{Conjunctive Term}~ z, ~\text{Taken as Predicate}\!</math>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
One thing needs to be stressed at this point.&nbsp; It is important to recognize that the conjunctive term itself &mdash; namely, the syntactic string &ldquo;spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit&rdquo; &mdash; is not an icon but a symbol.&nbsp; It has its place in a formal system of symbols, for example, a propositional calculus, where it would normally be interpreted as a logical conjunction of six elementary propositions, denoting anything in the universe of discourse that has all six of the corresponding properties.&nbsp; The symbol denotes objects that may be taken as icons of oranges by virtue of bearing those six properties.&nbsp; But there are no objects denoted by the symbol that aren't already oranges themselves.&nbsp; Thus we observe a natural reduction in the denotation of the symbol, consisting in the absence of cases outside of oranges that have all the properties indicated.
 +
 
 +
The above analysis provides another way to understand the abductive inference that reasons from the Fact <math>x \Rightarrow z\!</math> and the Rule <math>y \Rightarrow z\!</math> to the Case <math>x \Rightarrow y.\!</math>&nbsp; The lack of any cases that are <math>z\!</math> and not <math>y\!</math> is expressed by the implication <math>z \Rightarrow y.\!</math>&nbsp; Taking this together with the Rule <math>y \Rightarrow z\!</math> gives the logical equivalence <math>y = z.\!</math>&nbsp; But this reduces the Case <math>x \Rightarrow y\!</math> to the Fact <math>x \Rightarrow z\!</math> and so the Case is justified.
 +
 
 +
Viewed in the light of the above analysis, Peirce's example of abductive reasoning exhibits an especially strong form of inference, almost deductive in character.&nbsp; Do all abductive arguments take this form, or may there be weaker styles of abductive reasoning that enjoy their own levels of plausibility?&nbsp; That must remain an open question at this point.
 +
 
 +
===Discussion 6===
 +
 
 +
Figure&nbsp;2 shows the implication ordering of logical terms in the form of a ''lattice diagram''.
 +
 
 +
{| align="center" border="0" cellspacing="10" style="text-align:center; width:100%"
 +
| [[File:ICE Figure 2.jpg|center]]
 +
|-
 +
| height="20px" | <math>\text{Figure 2.} ~~ \text{Disjunctive Term}~ u, ~\text{Taken as Subject}\!</math>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Selection 7===
 +
 
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
 
<p>It is obvious that all deductive reasoning has a common property unshared by the other kinds &mdash; in being purely ''explicatory''.  Buffier mentions a definition of logic as the art of confessing in the conclusion what we have avowed in the premisses.  This bit of satire translated into the language of sobriety &mdash; amounts to charging that the logicians confine their attention exclusively to deductive reasoning.  A charge which against the logicians of other days, was quite just.</p>
 
<p>It is obvious that all deductive reasoning has a common property unshared by the other kinds &mdash; in being purely ''explicatory''.  Buffier mentions a definition of logic as the art of confessing in the conclusion what we have avowed in the premisses.  This bit of satire translated into the language of sobriety &mdash; amounts to charging that the logicians confine their attention exclusively to deductive reasoning.  A charge which against the logicians of other days, was quite just.</p>
Line 491: Line 440:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>With me the ''Sphere'' of a term is all the things we know that it applies to, or the disjunctive sum of the subjects to which it can be predicate in an affirmative subsumptive proposition.  The ''content'' of a term is all the attributes it tells us, or the conjunctive sum of the predicates to which it can be made subject in a universal necessary proposition.</p>
+
<p>With me &mdash; the ''Sphere'' of a term is all the things we know that it applies to, or the disjunctive sum of the subjects to which it can be predicate in an affirmative subsumptive proposition.  The ''content'' of a term is all the attributes it tells us, or the conjunctive sum of the predicates to which it can be made subject in a universal necessary proposition.</p>
  
<p>The maxim then which rules explicatory reasoning is that any part of the content of a term can be predicated of any part of its sphere. (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462).</p>
+
<p>The maxim then which rules explicatory reasoning is that any part of the content of a term can be predicated of any part of its sphere.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 500: Line 451:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
We come next to consider inductions.  In inferences of this kind we proceed as if upon the principle that as is a sample of a class so is the whole class.  The word ''class'' in this connection means nothing more than what is denoted by one term, or in other words the sphere of a term.  Whatever characters belong to the whole sphere of a term constitute the content of that term.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of a specimen of the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  And what is a specimen?  It is something taken from a class or the sphere of a term, at random that is, not upon any further principle, not selected from a part of that sphere;  in other words it is something taken from the sphere of a term and not taken as belonging to a narrower sphere.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of something taken as belonging to the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  But this principle is not axiomatic by any means.  Why then do we adopt it? (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462–463).
+
<p>We come next to consider inductions.  In inferences of this kind we proceed as if upon the principle that as is a sample of a class so is the whole class.  The word ''class'' in this connection means nothing more than what is denoted by one term, &mdash; or in other words the sphere of a term.  Whatever characters belong to the whole sphere of a term constitute the content of that term.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of a specimen of the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  And what is a specimen?  It is something taken from a class or the sphere of a term, at random &mdash; that is, not upon any further principle, not selected from a part of that sphere;  in other words it is something taken from the sphere of a term and not taken as belonging to a narrower sphere.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of something taken as belonging to the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  But this principle is not axiomatic by any means.  Why then do we adopt it?</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462&ndash;463).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 507: Line 460:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>To explain this, we must remember that the process of induction is a process of adding to our knowledge;  it differs therein from deduction which merely explicates what we know and is on this very account called scientific inference.  Now deduction rests as we have seen upon the inverse proportionality of the extension and comprehension of every term;  and this principle makes it impossible apparently to proceed in the direction of ascent to universals.  But a little reflection will show that when our knowledge receives an addition this principle does not hold.</p>
+
<p>To explain this, we must remember that the process of induction is a process of adding to our knowledge;  it differs therein from deduction &mdash; which merely explicates what we know &mdash; and is on this very account called scientific inference.  Now deduction rests as we have seen upon the inverse proportionality of the extension and comprehension of every term;  and this principle makes it impossible apparently to proceed in the direction of ascent to universals.  But a little reflection will show that when our knowledge receives an addition this principle does not hold.</p>
  
 
<p>Thus suppose a blind man to be told that no red things are blue.  He has previously known only that red is a color;  and that certain things ''A'', ''B'', and ''C'' are red.</p>
 
<p>Thus suppose a blind man to be told that no red things are blue.  He has previously known only that red is a color;  and that certain things ''A'', ''B'', and ''C'' are red.</p>
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
 
|
 
|
 
{|
 
{|
| The comprehension of red then has been for him ||&nbsp;|| ''color''.
+
| The comprehension of red then has been for him || &nbsp; || ''color''.
 
|-
 
|-
| Its extension has been                        ||&nbsp;|| ''A'', ''B'', ''C''.
+
| Its extension has been                        || &nbsp; || ''A'', ''B'', ''C''.
 
|}
 
|}
 
|}
 
|}
Line 522: Line 475:
 
<p>But when he learns that no red thing is blue, ''non-blue'' is added to the comprehension of red, without the least diminution of its extension.</p>
 
<p>But when he learns that no red thing is blue, ''non-blue'' is added to the comprehension of red, without the least diminution of its extension.</p>
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%"
 
|
 
|
 
{|
 
{|
Line 538: Line 491:
  
 
<p>For example we have here a number of circles dotted and undotted, crossed and uncrossed:</p>
 
<p>For example we have here a number of circles dotted and undotted, crossed and uncrossed:</p>
 
+
|-
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
 
| align="center" |
 
| align="center" |
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
(·X·)  (···)  (·X·)  (···)  ( X )  (  )  ( X )  (  )
 
(·X·)  (···)  (·X·)  (···)  ( X )  (  )  ( X )  (  )
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
|}
+
|-
 
+
|
 
<p>Here it is evident that the greater the extension the less the comprehension:</p>
 
<p>Here it is evident that the greater the extension the less the comprehension:</p>
 
+
|-
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
 
| align="center" |
 
| align="center" |
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
Line 561: Line 512:
 
o-------------------o-------------------o
 
o-------------------o-------------------o
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
|}
+
|-
 
+
|
 
<p>Now suppose we make these two terms ''dotted circle'' and ''crossed and dotted circle'' equivalent.  This we can do by crossing our uncrossed dotted circles.  In that way, we increase the comprehension of ''dotted circle'' and at the same time increase the extension of ''crossed and dotted circle'' since we now make it denote ''all dotted circles''.</p>
 
<p>Now suppose we make these two terms ''dotted circle'' and ''crossed and dotted circle'' equivalent.  This we can do by crossing our uncrossed dotted circles.  In that way, we increase the comprehension of ''dotted circle'' and at the same time increase the extension of ''crossed and dotted circle'' since we now make it denote ''all dotted circles''.</p>
  
Line 572: Line 523:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>Thus every increase in the number of equivalents of any term increases either its extension or comprehension and ''conversely''.  It may be said that there are no equivalent terms in logic, since the only difference between such terms would be merely external and grammatical, while in logic terms which have the same meaning are identical.  I fully admit that.  Indeed, the process of getting an equivalent for a term is an identification of two terms previously diverse.  It is, in fact, the process of nutrition of terms by which they get all their life and vigor and by which they put forth an energy almost creative since it has the effect of reducing the chaos of ignorance to the cosmos of science.  Each of these equivalents is the explication of what there is wrapt up in the primary &mdash; they are the surrogates, the interpreters of the original term.  They are new bodies, animated by that same soul.  I call them the ''interpretants'' of the term.  And the quantity of these ''interpretants'', I term the ''information'' or ''implication'' of the term.</p>
+
<p>Thus every increase in the number of equivalents of any term increases either its extension or comprehension and ''conversely''.  It may be said that there are no equivalent terms in logic, since the only difference between such terms would be merely external and grammatical, while in logic terms which have the same meaning are identical.  I fully admit that.  Indeed, the process of getting an equivalent for a term is an identification of two terms previously diverse.  It is, in fact, the process of nutrition of terms by which they get all their life and vigor and by which they put forth an energy almost creative &mdash; since it has the effect of reducing the chaos of ignorance to the cosmos of science.  Each of these equivalents is the explication of what there is wrapt up in the primary &mdash; they are the surrogates, the interpreters of the original term.  They are new bodies, animated by that same soul.  I call them the ''interpretants'' of the term.  And the quantity of these ''interpretants'', I term the ''information'' or ''implication'' of the term.</p>
  
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 464&ndash;465).
+
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 464&ndash;465).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 581: Line 532:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>We must therefore modify the law of the inverse proportionality of extension and comprehension and instead of writing:</p>
+
<p>We must therefore modify the law of the inverse proportionality of extension and comprehension and instead of writing</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | <p><math>\mathrm{Extension} \times \mathrm{Comprehension} = \mathrm{Constant}~\!</math></p>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>which crudely expresses the fact that the greater the extension the less the comprehension, we must write</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | <p><math>\mathrm{Extension} \times \mathrm{Comprehension} = \mathrm{Information}~\!</math></p>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>which means that when the information is increased there is an increase of either extension or comprehension without any diminution of the other of these quantities.</p>
  
<center>Extension × Comprehension = Constant,</center>
+
<p>Now, ladies and gentlemen, as it is true that every increase of our knowledge is an increase in the information of a term &mdash; that is, is an addition to the number of terms equivalent to that term &mdash; so it is also true that the first step in the knowledge of a thing, the first framing of a term, is also the origin of the information of that term because it gives the first term equivalent to that term.  I here announce the great and fundamental secret of the logic of science.  There is no term, properly so called, which is entirely destitute of information, of equivalent terms.  The moment an expression acquires sufficient comprehension to determine its extension, it already has more than enough to do so.</p>
  
<p>which crudely expresses the fact that the greater the extension the less the comprehension, we must write:</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 465).</p>
 
 
<center>Extension × Comprehension = Information,</center>
 
 
 
<p>which means that when the information is increased there is an increase of either extension or comprehension without any diminution of the other of these quantities.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Now, ladies and gentlemen, as it is true that every increase of our knowledge is an increase in the information of a term — that is, is an addition to the number of terms equivalent to that term — so it is also true that the first step in the knowledge of a thing, the first framing of a term, is also the origin of the information of that term because it gives the first term equivalent to that term.  I here announce the great and fundamental secret of the logic of science.  There is no term, properly so called, which is entirely destitute of information, of equivalent terms.  The moment an expression acquires sufficient comprehension to determine its extension, it already has more than enough to do so.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 465).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 598: Line 553:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>We are all, then, sufficiently familiar with the fact that many words have much implication;  but I think we need to reflect upon the circumstance that every word implies some proposition or, what is the same thing, every word, concept, symbol has an equivalent term or one which has become identified with it, in short, has an ''interpretant''.</p>
+
<p>We are all, then, sufficiently familiar with the fact that many words have much implication;  but I think we need to reflect upon the circumstance that every word implies some proposition or, what is the same thing, every word, concept, symbol has an equivalent term &mdash; or one which has become identified with it, &mdash; in short, has an ''interpretant''.</p>
  
<p>Consider, what a word or symbol is;  it is a sort of representation.  Now a representation is something which stands for something.  I will not undertake to analyze, this evening, this conception of ''standing for'' something but, it is sufficiently plain that it involves the standing ''to'' something ''for'' something.  A thing cannot stand for something without standing ''to'' something ''for'' that something.  Now, what is this that a word stands ''to''?  Is it a person?  We usually say that the word ''homme'' stands to a Frenchman for ''man''.  It would be a little more precise to say that it stands ''to'' the Frenchman's mind to his memory.  It is still more accurate to say that it addresses a particular remembrance or image in that memory.  And what ''image'', what remembrance?  Plainly, the one which is the mental equivalent of the word ''homme'' in short, its interpretant.  Whatever a word addresses then or ''stands to'', is its interpretant or identified symbol.  Conversely, every interpretant is addressed by the word;  for were it not so, did it not as it were overhear what the words says, how could it interpret what it says.</p>
+
<p>Consider, what a word or symbol is;  it is a sort of representation.  Now a representation is something which stands for something.  I will not undertake to analyze, this evening, this conception of ''standing for'' something &mdash; but, it is sufficiently plain that it involves the standing ''to'' something ''for'' something.  A thing cannot stand for something without standing ''to'' something ''for'' that something.  Now, what is this that a word stands ''to''?  Is it a person?  We usually say that the word ''homme'' stands to a Frenchman for ''man''.  It would be a little more precise to say that it stands ''to'' the Frenchman's mind &mdash; to his memory.  It is still more accurate to say that it addresses a particular remembrance or image in that memory.  And what ''image'', what remembrance?  Plainly, the one which is the mental equivalent of the word ''homme'' &mdash; in short, its interpretant.  Whatever a word addresses then or ''stands to'', is its interpretant or identified symbol.  Conversely, every interpretant is addressed by the word;  for were it not so, did it not as it were overhear what the words says, how could it interpret what it says.</p>
  
<p>There are doubtless some who cannot understand this metaphorical argument.  I wish to show that the relation of a word to that which it addresses is the same as its relation to its equivalent or identified terms.  For that purpose, I first show that whatever a word addresses is an equivalent term, its mental equivalent.  I next show that, since the intelligent reception of a term is the being addressed by that term, and since the explication of a term's implication is the intelligent reception of that term, that the interpretant or equivalent of a term which as we have already seen explicates the implication of a term is addressed by the term.</p>
+
<p>There are doubtless some who cannot understand this metaphorical argument.  I wish to show that the relation of a word to that which it addresses is the same as its relation to its equivalent or identified terms.  For that purpose, I first show that whatever a word addresses is an equivalent term, &mdash; its mental equivalent.  I next show that, since the intelligent reception of a term is the being addressed by that term, and since the explication of a term's implication is the intelligent reception of that term, that the interpretant or equivalent of a term which as we have already seen explicates the implication of a term is addressed by the term.</p>
  
<p>The interpretant of a term, then, and that which it stands to are identical.  Hence, since it is of the very essence of a symbol that it should stand ''to'' something, every symbol every word and every ''conception'' must have an interpretant or what is the same thing, must have information or implication.</p>
+
<p>The interpretant of a term, then, and that which it stands to are identical.  Hence, since it is of the very essence of a symbol that it should stand ''to'' something, every symbol &mdash; every word and every ''conception'' &mdash; must have an interpretant &mdash; or what is the same thing, must have information or implication.</p>
  
<p>Let us now return to the information.  The information of a term is the measure of its superfluous comprehension.  That is to say that the proper office of the comprehension is to determine the extension of the term.  For instance, you and I are men because we possess those attributes having two legs, being rational, &c. which make up the comprehension of ''man''.  Every addition to the comprehension of a term lessens its extension up to a certain point, after that further additions increase the information instead. (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 466–467).</p>
+
<p>Let us now return to the information.  The information of a term is the measure of its superfluous comprehension.  That is to say that the proper office of the comprehension is to determine the extension of the term.  For instance, you and I are men because we possess those attributes &mdash; having two legs, being rational, &c. &mdash; which make up the comprehension of ''man''.  Every addition to the comprehension of a term lessens its extension up to a certain point, after that further additions increase the information instead.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 466&ndash;467).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Discussion===
+
===Discussion 7===
  
 
If you dreamed that this inquiry had come full circle then I inform you of what you already know, that there are always greater circles.  I revert to Peirce's Harvard University Lectures of the year before, to pick up additional background material and a bit more motivation.
 
If you dreamed that this inquiry had come full circle then I inform you of what you already know, that there are always greater circles.  I revert to Peirce's Harvard University Lectures of the year before, to pick up additional background material and a bit more motivation.
Line 630: Line 587:
  
 
<p>Hence in the case of affirmatives;  an extensive judgment is expressed by the formula:</p>
 
<p>Hence in the case of affirmatives;  an extensive judgment is expressed by the formula:</p>
 
+
|-
<center>''A'' is contained under ''B'',</center>
+
| align="center" | <p>''A'' is contained under ''B'',</p>
 
+
|-
 +
|
 
<p>an equivalent intensive proposition by the formula:</p>
 
<p>an equivalent intensive proposition by the formula:</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | <p>''B'' is contained in ''A''.</center>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>Thus ''black horse'' is contained under ''horse'', and ''horse'' [is contained in ''black horse''].</p>
  
<center>''B'' is contained in ''A''.</center>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 272).</p>
 
 
<p>Thus ''black horse'' is contained under ''horse'', and ''horse'' [is contained in ''black horse''].  (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 272).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
===Selection 19===
 
===Selection 19===
  
'''Nota Bene.'''  In the Table below a label of the form ''XY'' indicates a premiss of a classical syllogism in which ''X'' is the subject and ''Y'' is the predicate.  Also, I suspect that the Third Figure syllogism ought to be ''XY'' & ''XZ''.
+
'''Nota Bene.'''  In the Table below a label of the form <math>XY\!</math> indicates a premiss of a classical syllogism in which <math>X\!</math> is the subject and <math>Y\!</math> is the predicate.  Also, I suspect that the Third Figure syllogism ought to be <math>XY\!</math> and <math>XZ.\!</math>
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
 
<p>What we have to distinguish, therefore, is not so much the quantity of extension from the quantity of intension as it is the object of connotation from the object of denotation.  In analytical judgments there is no denotation at all.  In a synthetical judgment the subject is an object of denotation.</p>
 
<p>What we have to distinguish, therefore, is not so much the quantity of extension from the quantity of intension as it is the object of connotation from the object of denotation.  In analytical judgments there is no denotation at all.  In a synthetical judgment the subject is an object of denotation.</p>
 
+
|-
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
| align="center" |
 +
<pre>
 
o---------------------o-----------------------o-----------------o
 
o---------------------o-----------------------o-----------------o
 
|                    |                      |                |
 
|                    |                      |                |
Line 668: Line 630:
 
|                    |                      |                |
 
|                    |                      |                |
 
o---------------------o-----------------------o-----------------o
 
o---------------------o-----------------------o-----------------o
</pre></font>
+
</pre>
 
+
|-
<p>There cannot be a judgment whose subject is an object of connotation and whose predicate is an object of denotation.  For a symbol ''denotes'' by virtue of ''connoting'' and not 'vice versa', hence the object of connotation determines the object of denotation and not 'vice versa', in the sense in which the subject of a proposition is the term determined and the predicate is the determining term.  Whence if one of the terms is an object of connotation and the other is an object of denotation, the latter is the subject and not the former.</p>
+
|
 +
<p>There cannot be a judgment whose subject is an object of connotation and whose predicate is an object of denotation.  For a symbol ''denotes'' by virtue of ''connoting'' and not ''vice versa'', hence the object of connotation determines the object of denotation and not ''vice versa'', in the sense in which the subject of a proposition is the term determined and the predicate is the determining term.  Whence if one of the terms is an object of connotation and the other is an object of denotation, the latter is the subject and not the former.</p>
  
 
<p>In the other two cases, there is no difference between subject and predicate;  except that one may be regarded as taken first.</p>
 
<p>In the other two cases, there is no difference between subject and predicate;  except that one may be regarded as taken first.</p>
Line 678: Line 641:
 
<p>A proposition would usually be called intensive if its predicate were an object of connotation;  hence we have three kinds of propositions given by these two;  namely,</p>
 
<p>A proposition would usually be called intensive if its predicate were an object of connotation;  hence we have three kinds of propositions given by these two;  namely,</p>
  
: <p>Analytic.</p>
+
::: <p>Analytic.</p>
  
: <p>Synthetic Intensive.</p>
+
::: <p>Synthetic Intensive.</p>
  
: <p>Extensive.</p>
+
::: <p>Extensive.</p>
  
 
<p>There is no such thing as an analytic extensive proposition.  For an analytic proposition containing no object of denotation is merely the expression of a relation of comprehension.  Of course from an analytic proposition a synthetic one may be immediately inferred.  From:</p>
 
<p>There is no such thing as an analytic extensive proposition.  For an analytic proposition containing no object of denotation is merely the expression of a relation of comprehension.  Of course from an analytic proposition a synthetic one may be immediately inferred.  From:</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | <p>Man is mortal,</p>
 +
|-
 +
| <p>we may infer:</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | <p>All men are mortals,</p>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>but the predicate ''mortals'' is not a mere result of the analysis of ''men''.  I have here slightly narrowed Kant's definition of the analytic judgment so as to make it not merely needless but impossible to test one by experience.</p>
  
: <p>Man is mortal,</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 272&ndash;274).</p>
 +
|}
  
<p>we may infer:</p>
+
===Selection 20===
 
 
: <p> All men are mortals,</p>
 
 
 
<p>but the predicate 'mortals' is not a mere result of the analysis of ''men''.  I have here slightly narrowed Kant's definition of the analytic judgment so as to make it not merely needless but impossible to test one by experience.  (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10.  Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 272–274).</p>
 
|}
 
 
 
===Selection 20===
 
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
Line 703: Line 669:
 
<p>In order to answer this objection we must revert to that distinction between ''thing'', ''image'', and ''form'' established in the lecture upon the definition of logic.  A representation is anything which may be regarded as standing for something else.  Matter or thing is that for which a representation might stand prescinded from all that could constitute a relation with any representation.  A form is the relation between a representation and thing prescinded from both representation and thing.  An image is a representation prescinded from thing and form.</p>
 
<p>In order to answer this objection we must revert to that distinction between ''thing'', ''image'', and ''form'' established in the lecture upon the definition of logic.  A representation is anything which may be regarded as standing for something else.  Matter or thing is that for which a representation might stand prescinded from all that could constitute a relation with any representation.  A form is the relation between a representation and thing prescinded from both representation and thing.  An image is a representation prescinded from thing and form.</p>
  
<p>Derived directly from this abstractest triad was another less abstract.  This is Object—Equivalent-Representation—Logos.  The ''object'' is a thing corresponding to a representation regarded as actual.  The equivalent representation is a representation in any language equivalent to a representation regarded as actual.  A Logos is a form constituting the relation between an object and a representation regarded as actual.</p>
+
<p>Derived directly from this abstractest triad was another less abstract.  This is Object&mdash;Equivalent Representation&mdash;Logos.  The ''object'' is a thing corresponding to a representation regarded as actual.  The equivalent representation is a representation in any language equivalent to a representation regarded as actual.  A Logos is a form constituting the relation between an object and a representation regarded as actual.</p>
  
<p>Every symbol may be said in three different senses to be determined by its ''object'', its ''equivalent representation'', and its ''logos''.  It stands for its ''object'', it translates its ''equivalent representation'', it realizes its ''logos''. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10. Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 274).</p>
+
<p>Every symbol may be said in three different senses to be determined by its ''object'', its ''equivalent representation'', and its ''logos''.  It stands for its ''object'', it translates its ''equivalent representation'', it realizes its ''logos''.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 274).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 718: Line 686:
 
<p>But an object is a thing informed and represented.  An equivalent representation is an image which is itself represented and realized, and a logos is a form, embodied in an object and representation.</p>
 
<p>But an object is a thing informed and represented.  An equivalent representation is an image which is itself represented and realized, and a logos is a form, embodied in an object and representation.</p>
  
<p>Hence the object of a symbol implies in itself both thing, form, and image.  And hence regarded as containing one or other of these three elements it may be distinguished as ''material object'', ''formal object'', and ''representative object''.  Now so far as the object of a symbol contains the ''thing'', so far the symbol stands for something and so far it denores.  So far as its object embodies a form, so far the symbol has a meaning and so far it connotes.  Thus we see that the ''denotative object'' and the ''connotative object'' are in fact identical;  and therefore an analytic, an intensive synthetic, and an extensive proposition may all represent the same fact and yet the mode in which they are obtained and the relation of the proposition to that fact are necessarily very different. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10. Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 274–275).</p>
+
<p>Hence the object of a symbol implies in itself both thing, form, and image.  And hence regarded as containing one or other of these three elements it may be distinguished as ''material object'', ''formal object'', and ''representative object''.  Now so far as the object of a symbol contains the ''thing'', so far the symbol stands for something and so far it denores.  So far as its object embodies a form, so far the symbol has a meaning and so far it connotes.  Thus we see that the ''denotative object'' and the ''connotative object'' are in fact identical;  and therefore an analytic, an intensive synthetic, and an extensive proposition may all represent the same fact and yet the mode in which they are obtained and the relation of the proposition to that fact are necessarily very different.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 274&ndash;275).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 728: Line 698:
  
 
<p>If we suppose ourselves to know no more of man than what is contained in the definition ''Man is the rational animal'', then we might divide man into ''man risible'' and ''man non-risible''.</p>
 
<p>If we suppose ourselves to know no more of man than what is contained in the definition ''Man is the rational animal'', then we might divide man into ''man risible'' and ''man non-risible''.</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" |
 +
<math>{}_\text{man}\overbrace{{}_\text{risible} \qquad\qquad\qquad\qquad {}_\text{man non-}}^{\text{man}}{}_\text{risible}\!</math>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>And then the connotation of ''man'' would be less than that of either ''man risible'' or ''man non-risible''.  And conversely ''man risible'' and ''man non-risible'' would have a less extension than ''man''.  But we afterwards find that the class ''man non-risible'' does not exist and is impossible.  Henceforward the idea of man and that of risible man are changed.  The ''extension'' of risible man has become equal to that of ''men'' and the comprehension of ''man'' has become equal to that of ''risible man''.  And how has this change in the relations of the terms been effected?</p>
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
<p>Before the information we knew (let us say) that there were certain risible men whom we may denote by ''A'' and there were other men who might or might not be risible whom we will denote by ''BB''’ [&mdash; perhaps ''B'' + ''B''’ was intended?]We have now found that ''BB''’ are also risible.  When we said all men before we meant ''A'' + ''B'' + ''B''’; when we say all men now we mean the same.  The extension of ''man'' then has not changedWhen we said risible men before we denoted ''A'' + ''B''&nbsp;?, that is to say the whole of ''A'' but none of ''B'' for certain;  but now when we say risible men we denote ''A'' + ''B'' + ''B''’.  Hence the extension of risible men has ''increased'', so as to become equal to that of ''men''.  On the other hand the intension of ''risible man'' is now as it was before, composed of ''risible'', ''rational'', and ''animal''; while the comprehension of ''man'' which before contained only ''rational'' and ''animal'', now contains ''risible'' also.</p>
                            man                             
 
          ___________________|___________________           
 
        /                                      \         
 
    man risible                          man non-risible   
 
</pre></font>
 
 
 
<p>And then the connotation of ''man'' would be less than that of either ''man risible'' or ''man non-risible''.  And conversely ''man risible'' and ''man non-risible'' would have a less extension than ''man''. But we afterwards find that the class ''man non-risible'' does not exist and is impossibleHenceforward the idea of man and that of risible man are changed.  The ''extension'' of risible man has become equal to that of ''men'' and the comprehension of ''man'' has become equal to that of ''risible man''. And how has this change in the relations of the terms been effected?</p>
 
  
<p>Before the information we knew (let us say) that there were certain risible men whom we may denote by ''A'' and there were other men who might or might not be risible whom we will denote by ''BB''’ [— perhaps ''B'' + ''B''’ was intended?].  We have now found that ''BB''’ are also risible.  When we said all men before we meant ''A'' + ''B'' + ''B''’;  when we say all men now we mean the same.  The extension of ''man'' then has not changed.  When we said risible men before we denoted ''A'' + ''B''&nbsp;?, that is to say the whole of ''A'' but none of ''B'' for certain;  but now when we say risible men we denote ''A'' + ''B'' + ''B''’.  Hence the extension of risible men has ''increased'', so as to become equal to that of ''men''.  On the other hand the intension of ''risible man'' is now as it was before, composed of ''risible'', ''rational'', and ''animal'';  while the comprehension of ''man'' which before contained only ''rational'' and ''animal'', now contains ''risible'' also.  (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 275–276).</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 275&ndash;276).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 746: Line 715:
 
|
 
|
 
<p>Thus the process of information disturbs the relations of extension and comprehension for a moment and the class which results from the equivalence of two others has a greater intension than one and a greater extension than the other.  Hence, we may conveniently alter the formula for the relations of extension and comprehension;  thus, instead of saying that one is the reciprocal of the other, or:</p>
 
<p>Thus the process of information disturbs the relations of extension and comprehension for a moment and the class which results from the equivalence of two others has a greater intension than one and a greater extension than the other.  Hence, we may conveniently alter the formula for the relations of extension and comprehension;  thus, instead of saying that one is the reciprocal of the other, or:</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | <math>\mathrm{comprehension} \times \mathrm{extension} = \mathrm{constant},\!</math>
 +
|-
 +
| <p>we may say:</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" | <math>\mathrm{comprehension} \times \mathrm{extension} = \mathrm{information}.\!</math>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>We see then that all symbols besides their denotative and connotative objects have another;  their informative object.  The denotative object is the total of possible things denoted.  The connotative object is the total of symbols translated or implied.  The informative object is the total of forms manifested and is measured by the amount of intension the term has, over and above what is necessary for limiting its extension.  For example the denotative object of ''man'' is such collections of matter the word knows while it knows them i.e. while they are organized.  The connotative object of ''man'' is the total form which the word expresses.  The informative object of ''man'' is the total fact which it embodies;  or the value of the conception which is its equivalent symbol.</p>
  
<p><center>comprehension × extension = constant,</center>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 276).</p>
we may say:
 
<center>comprehension × extension = information.</center></p>
 
 
 
<p>We see then that all symbols besides their denotative and connotative objects have another;  their informative object.  The denotative object is the total of possible things denoted.  The connotative object is the total of symbols translated or implied.  The informative object is the total of forms manifested and is measured by the amount of intension the term has, over and above what is necessary for limiting its extension.  For example the denotative object of ''man'' is such collections of matter the word knows while it knows them i.e. while they are organized.  The connotative object of ''man'' is the total form which the word expresses.  The informative object of ''man'' is the total fact which it embodies;  or the value of the conception which is its equivalent symbol.  (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 276).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 758: Line 732:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
Abstract words such as ''truth'', ''honor'', by the way, are somewhat difficult to understand.  It seems to me that they are simply fictions.  Every word must denote some ''thing'';  these are names for certain fictitious things which are supposed for the purpose of indicating that the object of a concrete term is meant as it would be did it contain either no information or a certain amount of information.  Thus "charity is a virtue" means "What is charitable is virtuous by the definition of charity and not by reason of what is known about it".  Hence, only analytical propositions are possible of abstract terms;  and on this account they are peculiarly useful in metaphysics where the question is what can we know without any information. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 276–277).
+
<p>Abstract words such as ''truth'', ''honor'', by the way, are somewhat difficult to understand.  It seems to me that they are simply fictions.  Every word must denote some ''thing'';  these are names for certain fictitious things which are supposed for the purpose of indicating that the object of a concrete term is meant as it would be did it contain either no information or a certain amount of information.  Thus "charity is a virtue" means "What is charitable is virtuous &mdash; by the definition of charity and not by reason of what is known about it".  Hence, only analytical propositions are possible of abstract terms;  and on this account they are peculiarly useful in metaphysics where the question is what can we know without any information.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 276&ndash;277).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 765: Line 741:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
Coming back now to propositions, we should first remark that just as the framing of a term is a process of symbolization so also is the framing of a proposition.  No proposition is supposed to leave its terms as it finds them.  Some symbol is determined by every proposition.  Hence, since symbols are determined by their objects;  and there are three objects of symbols, the connotative, denotative, informative;  it follows that there will be three kinds of propositions, such as alter the denotation, the information, and the connotation of their terms respectively.  But when information is determined both connotation and information [perhaps "denotation" ?] are determined;  hence the three kinds will be 1st Such as determine connotation, 2nd Such as determine denotation, 3rd Such as determine both denotation and connotation. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 277).
+
<p>Coming back now to propositions, we should first remark that just as the framing of a term is a process of symbolization so also is the framing of a proposition.  No proposition is supposed to leave its terms as it finds them.  Some symbol is determined by every proposition.  Hence, since symbols are determined by their objects;  and there are three objects of symbols, the connotative, denotative, informative;  it follows that there will be three kinds of propositions, such as alter the denotation, the information, and the connotation of their terms respectively.  But when information is determined both connotation and information [&mdash; perhaps "denotation" ?] are determined;  hence the three kinds will be 1st Such as determine connotation, 2nd Such as determine denotation, 3rd Such as determine both denotation and connotation.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 277).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 791: Line 769:
  
 
<p>Thus, we have:</p>
 
<p>Thus, we have:</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" |
 +
<math>\text{Conjunctive} \quad \text{Simple} \quad \text{Enumerative}\!</math>
 +
|-
 +
| <p>propositions so related to:</p>
 +
|-
 +
| align="center" |
 +
<math>\text{Denotative} \quad \text{Informative} \quad \text{Connotative}\!</math>
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>propositions that what is on the left hand of one line cannot be on the right hand of the other.</p>
  
: <p>Conjunctive, Simple, Enumerative</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 278&ndash;279).</p>
 
 
<p>propositions so related to:</p>
 
 
 
: <p>Denotative, Informative, Connotative</p>
 
 
 
<p>propositions that what is on the left hand of one line cannot be on the right hand of the other.  (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10. Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 278–279).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 809: Line 792:
 
<p>The first point I shall discuss in the remainder of this lecture;  the second I shall scarcely be able to touch upon in these lectures.</p>
 
<p>The first point I shall discuss in the remainder of this lecture;  the second I shall scarcely be able to touch upon in these lectures.</p>
  
<p>Inference in general obviously supposes symbolization;  and all symbolization is inference.  For every symbol as we have seen contains information.  And in the last lecture we saw that all kinds of information involve inference.  Inference, then, is symbolization.  They are the same notions.  Now we have already analyzed the notion of a ''symbol'', and we have found that it depends upon the possibility of representations acquiring a nature, that is to say an immediate representative power.  This principle is therefore the ground of inference in general. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 279–280).</p>
+
<p>Inference in general obviously supposes symbolization;  and all symbolization is inference.  For every symbol as we have seen contains information.  And in the last lecture we saw that all kinds of information involve inference.  Inference, then, is symbolization.  They are the same notions.  Now we have already analyzed the notion of a ''symbol'', and we have found that it depends upon the possibility of representations acquiring a nature, that is to say an immediate representative power.  This principle is therefore the ground of inference in general.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 279&ndash;280).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 816: Line 801:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
But there are three distinct kinds of inference;  inconvertible and different in their conception.  There must, therefore, be three different principles to serve for their grounds.  These three principles must also be indemonstrable;  that is to say, each of them so far as it can be proved must be proved by means of that kind of inference of which it is the ground.  For if the principle of either kind of inference were proved by another kind of inference, the former kind of inference would be reduced to the latter;  and since the different kinds of inference are in all respects different this cannot be.  You will say that it is no proof of these principles at all to support them by that which they themselves support.  But I take it for granted at the outset, as I said at the beginning of my first lecture, that induction and hypothesis have their own validity.  The question before us is ''why'' they are valid.  The principles, therefore, of which we are in search, are not to be used to prove that the three kinds of inference are valid, but only to show how they come to be valid, and the proof of them consists in showing that they determine the validity of the three kinds of inference. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 280).</p>
+
<p>But there are three distinct kinds of inference;  inconvertible and different in their conception.  There must, therefore, be three different principles to serve for their grounds.  These three principles must also be indemonstrable;  that is to say, each of them so far as it can be proved must be proved by means of that kind of inference of which it is the ground.  For if the principle of either kind of inference were proved by another kind of inference, the former kind of inference would be reduced to the latter;  and since the different kinds of inference are in all respects different this cannot be.  You will say that it is no proof of these principles at all to support them by that which they themselves support.  But I take it for granted at the outset, as I said at the beginning of my first lecture, that induction and hypothesis have their own validity.  The question before us is ''why'' they are valid.  The principles, therefore, of which we are in search, are not to be used to prove that the three kinds of inference are valid, but only to show how they come to be valid, and the proof of them consists in showing that they determine the validity of the three kinds of inference.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 280).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 827: Line 814:
 
<p>Our next business is to find which is which.</p>
 
<p>Our next business is to find which is which.</p>
  
<p>(Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 280–281).</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 280&ndash;281).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 838: Line 825:
 
<p>The ground of deductive inference then must be established deductively;  that is by reasoning from determinant to determinate, or in other words by reasoning from definition.  But this kind of reasoning can only be applied to an object whose character depends upon its definition.  Now of most objects it is the definition which depends upon the character;  and so the definition must therefore itself rest on induction or hypothesis.  But the principle of deduction must rest on nothing but deduction, and therefore it must relate to something whose character depends upon its definition.  Now the only objects of which this is true are symbols;  they indeed are created by their definition;  while neither forms nor things are.  Hence, the principle of deduction must relate to the symbolizability of of symbols.</p>
 
<p>The ground of deductive inference then must be established deductively;  that is by reasoning from determinant to determinate, or in other words by reasoning from definition.  But this kind of reasoning can only be applied to an object whose character depends upon its definition.  Now of most objects it is the definition which depends upon the character;  and so the definition must therefore itself rest on induction or hypothesis.  But the principle of deduction must rest on nothing but deduction, and therefore it must relate to something whose character depends upon its definition.  Now the only objects of which this is true are symbols;  they indeed are created by their definition;  while neither forms nor things are.  Hence, the principle of deduction must relate to the symbolizability of of symbols.</p>
  
<p>The principle of hypothetic inference must be established hypothetically, that is by reasoning from determinate to determinant.  Now it is clear that this kind of reasoning is applicable only to that which is determined by what it determines;  or that which is only subject to truth and falsehood so far as its determinate is, and is thus of itself pure 'zero'.  Now this is the case with nothing whatever except the pure forms;  they indeed are what they are only in so far as they determine some symbol or object.  Hence the principle of hypothetic inference must relate to the symbolizability of forms.</p>
+
<p>The principle of hypothetic inference must be established hypothetically, that is by reasoning from determinate to determinant.  Now it is clear that this kind of reasoning is applicable only to that which is determined by what it determines;  or that which is only subject to truth and falsehood so far as its determinate is, and is thus of itself pure ''zero''.  Now this is the case with nothing whatever except the pure forms;  they indeed are what they are only in so far as they determine some symbol or object.  Hence the principle of hypothetic inference must relate to the symbolizability of forms.</p>
  
<p>The principle of inductive inference must be established inductively, that is by reasoning from parts to whole.  This kind of reasoning can apply only to those objects whose parts collectively are their whole.  Now of symbols this is not true.  If I write ''man'' here and ''dog'' here that does not constitute the symbol of ''man and dog'', for symbols have to be reduced to the unity of symbolization which Kant calls the unity of apperception and unless this be indicated by some special mark they do not constitute a whole.  In the same way forms have to determine the same matter before they are added;  if the curtains are green and the wainscot yellow that does not make a ''yellow-green''.  But with things it is altogether different;  wrench the blade and handle of a knife apart and the form of the knife has disappeared but they are the same thing the same matter that they were before.  Hence, the principle of induction must relate to the symbolizability of things.</p>
+
<p>The principle of inductive inference must be established inductively, that is by reasoning from parts to whole.  This kind of reasoning can apply only to those objects whose parts collectively are their whole.  Now of symbols this is not true.  If I write ''man'' here and ''dog'' here that does not constitute the symbol of ''man and dog'', for symbols have to be reduced to the unity of symbolization which Kant calls the unity of apperception and unless this be indicated by some special mark they do not constitute a whole.  In the same way forms have to determine the same matter before they are added;  if the curtains are green and the wainscot yellow that does not make a ''yellow-green''.  But with things it is altogether different;  wrench the blade and handle of a knife apart and the form of the knife has disappeared but they are the same thing &mdash; the same matter &mdash; that they were before.  Hence, the principle of induction must relate to the symbolizability of things.</p>
  
<p>All these principles must as principles be universal.  Hence they are as follows:</p>
+
<p>All these principles must as principles be universal.  Hence they are as follows:&mdash;</p>
 
+
|-
<p>All things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.</p>
+
| align="center" | <math>\text{All things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.}~\!</math>
 
+
|-
<p>(Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 281–282).</p>
+
|
|}
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 281&ndash;282).</p>
 +
|}
  
 
===Selection 31===
 
===Selection 31===
Line 853: Line 841:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>All these principles must as principles be universal.  Hence they are as follows:</p>
+
<p>All these principles must as principles be universal.  Hence they are as follows:&mdash;</p>
 
+
|-
<p>All things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.</p>
+
| align="center" | <math>\text{All things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.}~\!</math>
 
+
|-
 +
|
 
<p>The next step is to prove each of these principles.  First then, to prove deductively that all symbols are symbolizable.  In every syllogism there is a term which is predicate and subject.  But a predicate is a symbol of its subject.  Hence, in every deduction a symbol is symbolized.  Now deduction is valid independently of the matter of the judgment.  Hence all symbols are symbolizable.</p>
 
<p>The next step is to prove each of these principles.  First then, to prove deductively that all symbols are symbolizable.  In every syllogism there is a term which is predicate and subject.  But a predicate is a symbol of its subject.  Hence, in every deduction a symbol is symbolized.  Now deduction is valid independently of the matter of the judgment.  Hence all symbols are symbolizable.</p>
  
 
<p>Next;  to prove inductively that all things are symbolizable.  For this purpose we must take all the collocations of things we can and judge by them.  Now all these collocations of things have been selected upon some principle;  this principle of selection is a predicate of them and a ''concept''.  Being a concept it is a symbol.  And it partakes of that peculiarity of symbols that it must have information.  We have no concepts which do not denote some things as well as connoting;  because all our thought begins with experience.  But a symbol which has connotation and denotation contains information.  Whatever symbol contains information contains more connotation than is necessary to limit its possible denotation to those things which it may denote.  That is every symbol contains more than is sufficient for a principle of selection.  Hence every selected collocation of things must have something more than a mere principle of selection, it must have another common quality.  Now by induction this common quality may be predicated of the whole possible denotation of the concept which serves as principle of selection.  And thus every collocation of things we can select is symbolized by its principle of selection.  Now by induction we pass from this statement that all things we can take are symbolizable to the principle that all things are symbolzable.  Q.E.D.  This argument though inductive in form is of the highest possible validity, for no case can possibly arise to contradict it.</p>
 
<p>Next;  to prove inductively that all things are symbolizable.  For this purpose we must take all the collocations of things we can and judge by them.  Now all these collocations of things have been selected upon some principle;  this principle of selection is a predicate of them and a ''concept''.  Being a concept it is a symbol.  And it partakes of that peculiarity of symbols that it must have information.  We have no concepts which do not denote some things as well as connoting;  because all our thought begins with experience.  But a symbol which has connotation and denotation contains information.  Whatever symbol contains information contains more connotation than is necessary to limit its possible denotation to those things which it may denote.  That is every symbol contains more than is sufficient for a principle of selection.  Hence every selected collocation of things must have something more than a mere principle of selection, it must have another common quality.  Now by induction this common quality may be predicated of the whole possible denotation of the concept which serves as principle of selection.  And thus every collocation of things we can select is symbolized by its principle of selection.  Now by induction we pass from this statement that all things we can take are symbolizable to the principle that all things are symbolzable.  Q.E.D.  This argument though inductive in form is of the highest possible validity, for no case can possibly arise to contradict it.</p>
  
<p>Thirdly, we have to prove hypothetically that all forms are symbolizable.  For this purpose we must consider that 'forms' are nothing unless they are embodied, and then they constitute the synthesis of the matter.  Hence the knowledge of them cannot be directly given but must be obtained by hypothesis.  Now we have to explain this fact, that all forms are to be regarded as subjects for hypothesis, by a hypothesis.  For this purpose, we should reflect that whatever is symbolizable is symbolized by terms and their combinations.  Now we saw at the last lecture that the process of obtaining a new term is a hypothetic inference.  So that everything which is symbolizable is to be regarded as a subject for hypothesis.  This accounts for the same thing being true of forms, if we make the hypothesis that all forms are symbolizable.  Q.E.D.  This argument though only an hypothesis could not have been stronger for the conclusion involves no matter of fact at all. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 282–283).</p>
+
<p>Thirdly, we have to prove hypothetically that all forms are symbolizable.  For this purpose we must consider that 'forms' are nothing unless they are embodied, and then they constitute the synthesis of the matter.  Hence the knowledge of them cannot be directly given but must be obtained by hypothesis.  Now we have to explain this fact, that all forms are to be regarded as subjects for hypothesis, by a hypothesis.  For this purpose, we should reflect that whatever is symbolizable is symbolized by terms and their combinations.  Now we saw at the last lecture that the process of obtaining a new term is a hypothetic inference.  So that everything which is symbolizable is to be regarded as a subject for hypothesis.  This accounts for the same thing being true of forms, if we make the hypothesis that all forms are symbolizable.  Q.E.D.  This argument though only an hypothesis could not have been stronger for the conclusion involves no matter of fact at all.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 282&ndash;283).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 878: Line 869:
 
<p>Thus we have in order of strength Deduction, Induction, Hypothesis.  Deduction, in fact, is the only demonstration;  yet no one thinks of questioning a good induction, while hypothesis is proverbially dangerous.  ''Hypotheses non fingo'', said Newton, striving to place his theory on a basis of strict induction.  Yet it is hypotheses with which we must start;  the baby when he lies turning his fingers before his eyes is making a hypothesis as to the connection of what he sees and what he feels.  Hypotheses give us our facts.  Induction extends our knowledge.  Deduction makes it distinct.</p>
 
<p>Thus we have in order of strength Deduction, Induction, Hypothesis.  Deduction, in fact, is the only demonstration;  yet no one thinks of questioning a good induction, while hypothesis is proverbially dangerous.  ''Hypotheses non fingo'', said Newton, striving to place his theory on a basis of strict induction.  Yet it is hypotheses with which we must start;  the baby when he lies turning his fingers before his eyes is making a hypothesis as to the connection of what he sees and what he feels.  Hypotheses give us our facts.  Induction extends our knowledge.  Deduction makes it distinct.</p>
  
<p>(Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 283).</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 283).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 886: Line 877:
 
|
 
|
 
<p>In every induction we have given some remarkable fact or piece of information:</p>
 
<p>In every induction we have given some remarkable fact or piece of information:</p>
 
+
|-
: <p>S is B,</p>
+
| align="center" | <math>S ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math>
 
+
|-
<p>where B is an object of connotation.  We infer that something else:</p>
+
|
 
+
<p>where <math>B\!</math> is an object of connotation.  We infer that something else:</p>
: <p>T is B.</p>
+
|-
 
+
| align="center" | <math>\Sigma ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math>
<p>Let us suppose that T contains more ''information'' than S.  Then, if T is no more extensive than S, "T is B" is a better judgment than "S is B" because it contains more information without predicating B of anything doubtful.</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>Let us suppose that <math>\Sigma\!</math> contains more ''information'' than <math>S.\!</math> Then, if <math>\Sigma\!</math> is no more extensive than <math>S,\!</math> <math>\Sigma ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math> is a better judgment than <math>S ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math> because it contains more information without predicating <math>B\!</math> of anything doubtful.</p>
  
 
<p>Thus, it is better to say "All men are mortal" than "all rational animals are mortal" for the former implies the latter and contains no more possibility of error and is more ''distinct''.</p>
 
<p>Thus, it is better to say "All men are mortal" than "all rational animals are mortal" for the former implies the latter and contains no more possibility of error and is more ''distinct''.</p>
  
<p>But in every case of induction T is also more extensive than S.  Then in case S is a true symbol and "S is B" is a single true judgment, this judgment or proposition must be the result of induction, as we saw in the last lecture that all propositions are.  The question is, therefore, which is the preferable theory, "S is B" or "T is B".  The greater information of T causes the latter theory to contain more truth but its greater extension renders it liable to more error.  If in T the extension of S is increased more than the information is, the connotation will be diminished and 'vice versa'.  Accordingly the greater the connotation of T relatively to that of S, the better is the theory proposed, "T is B".</p>
+
<p>But in every case of induction <math>\Sigma\!</math> is also more extensive than <math>S.\!</math> Then in case <math>S\!</math> is a true symbol and <math>S ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math> is a single true judgment, this judgment or proposition must be the result of induction, as we saw in the last lecture that all propositions are.  The question is, therefore, which is the preferable theory, <math>S ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math> or <math>\Sigma ~\mathrm{is}~ B.\!</math> The greater information of <math>\Sigma\!</math> causes the latter theory to contain more truth but its greater extension renders it liable to more error.  If in <math>\Sigma\!</math> the extension of <math>S\!</math> is increased more than the information is, the connotation will be diminished and ''vice versa''.  Accordingly the greater the connotation of <math>\Sigma\!</math> relatively to that of <math>S,\!</math> the better is the theory proposed, <math>\Sigma ~\mathrm{is}~ B.\!</math></p>
  
 
<p>Which of the two theories to select in any case will depend upon the motives which influence us.  In a desperate practical case, if one's life depends upon taking the right one, he ought to select the one whose subject has the greatest connotation.  In a cool speculation where safety is the essential;  the least extensive should be taken.</p>
 
<p>Which of the two theories to select in any case will depend upon the motives which influence us.  In a desperate practical case, if one's life depends upon taking the right one, he ought to select the one whose subject has the greatest connotation.  In a cool speculation where safety is the essential;  the least extensive should be taken.</p>
  
<p>So much for the preference between two theories.  But in proceeding from fact to theory in such a case as that about ''neat'', ''swine'', ''sheep'', and ''deer'' S is a mere enumerative term and has no connotation at all.  In this case therefore T increases the connotation of S absolutely and "T is B" ought therefore to be absolutely preferred to "S is B" and be accepted assertorically;  as long as there is no question between this theory and some other and as long as it is not opposed by some other induction. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 285).</p>
+
<p>So much for the preference between two theories.  But in proceeding from fact to theory &mdash; in such a case as that about ''neat'', ''swine'', ''sheep'', and ''deer'' &mdash; <math>S\!</math> is a mere enumerative term and has no connotation at all.  In this case therefore <math>\Sigma\!</math> increases the connotation of <math>S\!</math> absolutely and <math>\Sigma ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math> ought therefore to be absolutely preferred to <math>S ~\mathrm{is}~ B\!</math> and be accepted assertorically;  as long as there is no question between this theory and some other and as long as it is not opposed by some other induction.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 285).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
 
Nota Bene.  For the sake of readability in this transcription, I supply quotation marks around formulas and change a couple of Greek letters to Roman characters, using T for Sigma and Q for Pi.
 
  
 
===Selection 34===
 
===Selection 34===
Line 911: Line 904:
 
|
 
|
 
<p>In the case of hypothesis we have given some remarkable state of things:</p>
 
<p>In the case of hypothesis we have given some remarkable state of things:</p>
 
+
|-
: <p>X is P,</p>
+
| align="center" | <math>X ~\mathrm{is}~ P\!</math>
 
+
|-
<p>where X is an object of denotation;  we explain this by supposing that:</p>
+
|
 
+
<p>where <math>X\!</math> is an object of denotation;  we explain this by supposing that:</p>
: <p>X is Q,</p>
+
|-
 
+
| align="center" | <math>X ~\mathrm{is}~ \Pi\!</math>
<p>and Q always contains more information than P.  If Q, therefore, has no more comprehension than P, it is better to say "X is Q" than "X is P".</p>
+
|-
 +
|
 +
<p>and <math>\Pi\!</math> always contains more information than <math>P.\!</math> If <math>\Pi,\!</math> therefore, has no more comprehension than <math>P,\!</math> it is better to say <math>X ~\mathrm{is}~ \Pi\!</math> than <math>X ~\mathrm{is}~ P.\!</math></p>
  
 
<p>It is ''clearer'' to say that Every man is mortal than to say that Every man is either a good mortal or a bad mortal.</p>
 
<p>It is ''clearer'' to say that Every man is mortal than to say that Every man is either a good mortal or a bad mortal.</p>
  
<p>But in the case of hypothesis, Q always comprehends more than P.  To decide then between the two;  we have to consider whether Q has more denotation than P for if it has, the information of P is increased more in Q than its comprehension is and ''vice versa'';  and we must be decided which to take by our motives.</p>
+
<p>But in the case of hypothesis, <math>\Pi\!</math> always comprehends more than <math>P.\!</math> To decide then between the two;  we have to consider whether <math>\Pi\!</math> has more denotation than <math>P\!</math> for if it has, the information of <math>P\!</math> is increased more in <math>\Pi\!</math> than its comprehension is and ''vice versa'';  and we must be decided which to take by our motives.</p>
  
<p>This is the case of a preference between hypotheses.  But in the first proceedure from facts, P is a mere conjunctive term, destitute of any denotation before this proposition.  Hence in this case the information is increased absolutely, the connotation only relatively, and the hypothesis is absolutely needed and must be taken as a ''pis aller'' unless opposed by some other argument and until a better one presents itself.</p>
+
<p>This is the case of a preference between hypotheses.  But in the first proceedure from facts, <math>P\!</math> is a mere conjunctive term, destitute of any denotation before this proposition.  Hence in this case the information is increased absolutely, the connotation only relatively, and the hypothesis is absolutely needed and must be taken as a ''pis aller'' unless opposed by some other argument and until a better one presents itself.</p>
  
 
<p>Polarization for instance is a series of phenomena which it is impossible to name or define without the use of a hypothesis.</p>
 
<p>Polarization for instance is a series of phenomena which it is impossible to name or define without the use of a hypothesis.</p>
  
<p>(Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 10Grounds of Induction", CE 1, 285–286).</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 10 : Grounds of Induction, CE 1, 285&ndash;286).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
 
Nota Bene.  For the sake of readability in this transcription, I supply quotation marks around formulas and change a couple of Greek letters to Roman characters, using T for Sigma and Q for Pi.
 
  
 
===Selection 35===
 
===Selection 35===
Line 939: Line 932:
 
<p>The last lecture was devoted to the fundamental inquiry of the whole course, that of the grounds of inference.</p>
 
<p>The last lecture was devoted to the fundamental inquiry of the whole course, that of the grounds of inference.</p>
  
<p>We first distingushed three kinds of reference which every true symbol has to its object.</p>
+
<p>We first distinguished three kinds of reference which every true symbol has to its object.</p>
  
 
<p>In the first place, every true symbol is applicable to some real thing.  Hence, every symbol whether true or not asserts itself to be applicable to some real thing.  This is the ''denotation'' of the symbol.  All that we know of things is as denotative objects of symbols.  And thus all denotation is comparative, merely.  One symbol has more denotation than another or is more extensive when it asserts itself to be applicable to all the things of which the first asserts itself to be applicable and also to others.</p>
 
<p>In the first place, every true symbol is applicable to some real thing.  Hence, every symbol whether true or not asserts itself to be applicable to some real thing.  This is the ''denotation'' of the symbol.  All that we know of things is as denotative objects of symbols.  And thus all denotation is comparative, merely.  One symbol has more denotation than another or is more extensive when it asserts itself to be applicable to all the things of which the first asserts itself to be applicable and also to others.</p>
Line 951: Line 944:
 
<p>Thus, no matter how general a symbol may be, it must have some connotation limiting its denotation;  it must refer to some determinate form;  but it must also connote ''reality'' in order to denote at all;  but ''all'' that has any determinate form has reality and thus this reality is a part of the connotation which does not limit the extension of the symbol.</p>
 
<p>Thus, no matter how general a symbol may be, it must have some connotation limiting its denotation;  it must refer to some determinate form;  but it must also connote ''reality'' in order to denote at all;  but ''all'' that has any determinate form has reality and thus this reality is a part of the connotation which does not limit the extension of the symbol.</p>
  
<p>And so every symbol has information.  To say that a symbol has information is as much as to say that it implies that it is equivalent to another symbol different in connotation. (Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 11", CE 1, 286–288).</p>
+
<p>And so every symbol has information.  To say that a symbol has information is as much as to say that it implies that it is equivalent to another symbol different in connotation.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 11, CE 1, 286&ndash;288).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 961: Line 956:
  
 
<p>In short the formula:</p>
 
<p>In short the formula:</p>
 
+
|-
: <p>Connotation × Denotation = Information</p>
+
| align="center" | <math>\mathrm{Connotation} \times \mathrm{Denotation} = \mathrm{Information}\!</math>
 
+
|-
 +
|
 
<p>holds good thoroughly.</p>
 
<p>holds good thoroughly.</p>
  
<p>(Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 11", CE 1, 288).</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 11, CE 1, 288).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 973: Line 969:
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>The difference between subject and predicate was also considered in the last lecture.  The subject is usually defined as the term determined by the proposition, but as the predicates of ''A'', ''E'', and ''I'' are also determined, this definition is inadequate.  We were led to substitute for it the following:</p>
+
<p>The difference between subject and predicate was also considered in the last lecture.  The subject is usually defined as the term determined by the proposition, but as the predicates of <math>\mathrm{A},\!</math> <math>\mathrm{E},\!</math> and <math>\mathrm{I}~\!</math> are also determined, this definition is inadequate.  We were led to substitute for it the following:&mdash;</p>
  
 
<p>The subject is the term determined in connotation and determining denotation;  the predicate is the term determined in denotation and determining in connotation.</p>
 
<p>The subject is the term determined in connotation and determining denotation;  the predicate is the term determined in denotation and determining in connotation.</p>
Line 980: Line 976:
  
 
<p>Thus we have three kinds of judgments:</p>
 
<p>Thus we have three kinds of judgments:</p>
 
+
|-
: <p>IC</p>
+
| align="center" |
: <p>DC</p>
+
<math>\begin{matrix}
: <p>DI</p>
+
\mathrm{IC}
 
+
\\
 +
\mathrm{DC}
 +
\\
 +
\mathrm{DI}
 +
\end{matrix}</math>
 +
|-
 +
|
 
<p>In the first case the subject is informative, the predicate connotative;  that is to say, the connotation of the symbol which forms the subject is explicated in the predicate.  Such judgments, usually called explicatory or analytic, I call connotative.</p>
 
<p>In the first case the subject is informative, the predicate connotative;  that is to say, the connotation of the symbol which forms the subject is explicated in the predicate.  Such judgments, usually called explicatory or analytic, I call connotative.</p>
  
Line 991: Line 993:
 
<p>In the third case the subject is denotative, the predicate is informative.  That is, the thing which the subject denotes is offered as an example of the application of the symbol which forms the predicate.  I call such judgments denotative.</p>
 
<p>In the third case the subject is denotative, the predicate is informative.  That is, the thing which the subject denotes is offered as an example of the application of the symbol which forms the predicate.  I call such judgments denotative.</p>
  
<p>(Peirce 1865, "Harvard Lecture 11", CE 1, 288–289).</p>
+
<p>(Peirce 1865, Harvard Lecture 11, CE 1, 288&ndash;289).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 1,011: Line 1,013:
 
| valign=top | 5th. || The fact that every mental representation is a symbol in a loose sense, and that every conception is so strictly;
 
| valign=top | 5th. || The fact that every mental representation is a symbol in a loose sense, and that every conception is so strictly;
 
|-
 
|-
| valign=top | 6th. || The fact that hypothesis gives terms or problematic propositions;  inductions propositions strictly speaking assertory propositions;  and deduction apodictic propositions or syllogisms proper.  That thus every elementary conception implies hypothesis and every judgment induction;
+
| valign=top | 6th. || The fact that hypothesis gives terms or problematic propositions;  inductions propositions strictly speaking &mdash; assertory propositions;  and deduction apodictic propositions or syllogisms proper.  That thus every elementary conception implies hypothesis and every judgment induction;
 
|-
 
|-
 
| valign=top | 7th. || The relations of denotation, connotation, and information;  and
 
| valign=top | 7th. || The relations of denotation, connotation, and information;  and
Line 1,018: Line 1,020:
 
|}
 
|}
  
<p>we found ourselves in a condition to solve the question of the grounds of inference by putting together these materials. (Peirce 1865, CE 1, 289).</p>
+
<p>we found ourselves in a condition to solve the question of the grounds of inference by putting together these materials.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, CE 1, 289).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 1,029: Line 1,033:
 
<p>In the first place with reference to the nature of the problem itself.  It is not required to prove that deduction, induction, or hypothesis are valid.  On the contrary, they are to be accepted as conditions of thought.  It had been shown in previous lectures that they are so.  Nor was a mode of calculating the probability of an induction or hypothesis now demanded;  this being a merely subsidiary problem at best and one which may for ought we could yet see, be absurd.  What we now wanted was an articulate statement and a satisfactory demonstration of those transcendental laws which give rise to the possibility of each kind of inference.</p>
 
<p>In the first place with reference to the nature of the problem itself.  It is not required to prove that deduction, induction, or hypothesis are valid.  On the contrary, they are to be accepted as conditions of thought.  It had been shown in previous lectures that they are so.  Nor was a mode of calculating the probability of an induction or hypothesis now demanded;  this being a merely subsidiary problem at best and one which may for ought we could yet see, be absurd.  What we now wanted was an articulate statement and a satisfactory demonstration of those transcendental laws which give rise to the possibility of each kind of inference.</p>
  
<p>Those grounds of possibility we found to be that All things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.  For these laws must refer to symbolization because symbolization and inference are the same.  As grounds of possibility they must refer to the possibility of symbolization.  As logical laws they must consider the reference of symbols in general to objects.  Now symbols in general have three relations to objects;  namely so far as the latter contain things, forms, symbols.  Finally as general principles they must be universal. (Peirce 1865, CE 1, 289–290).</p>
+
<p>Those grounds of possibility we found to be that All things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.  For these laws must refer to symbolization because symbolization and inference are the same.  As grounds of possibility they must refer to the possibility of symbolization.  As logical laws they must consider the reference of symbols in general to objects.  Now symbols in general have three relations to objects;  namely so far as the latter contain things, forms, symbols.  Finally as general principles they must be universal.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, CE 1, 289&ndash;290).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 1,042: Line 1,048:
 
<p>The three principles were proved by the several kinds of inference with certainty.  The inductive proof attained certainty by considering all the instances that could be taken.  And the hypothetic inference attained certainty by having only a subjective character.</p>
 
<p>The three principles were proved by the several kinds of inference with certainty.  The inductive proof attained certainty by considering all the instances that could be taken.  And the hypothetic inference attained certainty by having only a subjective character.</p>
  
<p>The influence of the three principles was shown in the case of deduction by the rule of ''Nota notae'' without which there could be no deduction.  In the case of Induction by the affirmative denotative proposition which must always be the first premiss.  And in the case of Hypothesis by the Universal connotative proposition which must always be the second premiss. (Peirce 1865, CE 1, 290).</p>
+
<p>The influence of the three principles was shown in the case of deduction by the rule of ''Nota notae'' without which there could be no deduction.  In the case of Induction by the affirmative denotative proposition which must always be the first premiss.  And in the case of Hypothesis by the Universal connotative proposition which must always be the second premiss.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, CE 1, 290).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 1,053: Line 1,061:
 
<p>I might also show that no induction or hypothesis is completely true except such as we call cognitions ''a priori''.  For the chance against it is infinite.  Hence, the question what is the 'probability' of an induction or hypothesis is senseless and the true question is how much truth does an induction contain.  For the same reasons by how much truth should not be meant what proportion of inferences therefrom are true but simply of how much value are certain premisses in giving us truth by induction or hypothesis.</p>
 
<p>I might also show that no induction or hypothesis is completely true except such as we call cognitions ''a priori''.  For the chance against it is infinite.  Hence, the question what is the 'probability' of an induction or hypothesis is senseless and the true question is how much truth does an induction contain.  For the same reasons by how much truth should not be meant what proportion of inferences therefrom are true but simply of how much value are certain premisses in giving us truth by induction or hypothesis.</p>
  
<p>We must distinguish therefore the truth which an inductive or hypothetic conclusion may have by accident from that which it must have from the nature of the facts explained.  The former cannot properly be estimated.  The latter can.  For to consider first induction;  if the same conclusion result inductively as the least truthful explanation possible of two different sets of facts, it is plain that a certain amount of truth it is obliged to have on account of each instance, that is on account of the extension of the subject of the fact.  And each instance determines a certain amount of truth independently of the others.  So that the number of different kinds of instances measures the least amount of truth the induction can have.  In the same way with hypothesis the number of different properties explained measures the least possible truth of the hypothesis. (Peirce 1865, CE 1, 293–294).</p>
+
<p>We must distinguish therefore the truth which an inductive or hypothetic conclusion may have by accident from that which it must have from the nature of the facts explained.  The former cannot properly be estimated.  The latter can.  For to consider first induction;  if the same conclusion result inductively as the least truthful explanation possible of two different sets of facts, it is plain that a certain amount of truth it is obliged to have on account of each instance, that is on account of the extension of the subject of the fact.  And each instance determines a certain amount of truth independently of the others.  So that the number of different kinds of instances measures the least amount of truth the induction can have.  In the same way with hypothesis the number of different properties explained measures the least possible truth of the hypothesis.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, CE 1, 293&ndash;294).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 1,064: Line 1,074:
 
<p>We may sum up then by the rule that the value of facts is in proportion to their number;  and that from given facts the best inference when all possible retrenchment has been made, is the one which being inductive has the most comprehensive subject and which being hypothetic has the most extensive predicate.</p>
 
<p>We may sum up then by the rule that the value of facts is in proportion to their number;  and that from given facts the best inference when all possible retrenchment has been made, is the one which being inductive has the most comprehensive subject and which being hypothetic has the most extensive predicate.</p>
  
<p>This seems to complete the logical theory of inference ...</p>
+
<p>This seems to complete the logical theory of inference &hellip;</p>
  
 
<p>(Peirce 1865, CE 1, 294).</p>
 
<p>(Peirce 1865, CE 1, 294).</p>
Line 1,079: Line 1,089:
 
<p>There are also principles of the Judgment corresponding to these conceptions of which we have instances in the laws that all things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.</p>
 
<p>There are also principles of the Judgment corresponding to these conceptions of which we have instances in the laws that all things, forms, symbols are symbolizable.</p>
  
<p>All the principles that can be so derived from the forms of logic must be valid for all experience.  For experience has used logic.  Everything else admits of speculative doubt. (Peirce 1865, CE 1, 302).</p>
+
<p>All the principles that can be so derived from the forms of logic must be valid for all experience.  For experience has used logic.  Everything else admits of speculative doubt.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>(Peirce 1865, CE 1, 302).</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Anthematic Notes==
+
==Commentary Notes==
 +
 
 +
===Commentary Note 1===
  
===Anthematic Note 1===
+
Peirce's incipient theory of information, that he appears to have developed by sheer force of logical insight from his early understanding of signs and scientific inquiry, is not an easy subject to grasp in its developing state.  An attempt to follow his reasoning step by step might well begin with this:
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
Each man has his own peculiar character.  It enters into all he does.  It is in his consciousness and not a mere mechanical trick, and therefore it is by the principles of the last lecture a cognition;  but as it enters into all his cognition, it is a cognition of ''things in general''. It is therefore the man's philosophy, his way of regarding things;  not a philosophy of the head alone — but one which pervades the whole man.  This idiosyncrasy is the idea of the man, and if this idea is true he lives forever;  if false, his individual soul has but a contingent existence.  (Peirce 1866, CE 1, 501).
+
<p>Let us now return to the information.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>The information of a term is the measure of its superfluous comprehension.</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Anthematic Note 2===
+
Today we would say that information has to do with constraint, law, redundancy.  I think that Peirce is talking about more or less the same thing under the theme of ''superfluous comprehension'', where the comprehension of a term or expression is the collection of properties, also known as ''intensions'', that it implies about the things to which it applies.
 +
 
 +
===Commentary Note 2===
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
That the idiosyncrasy of a man — his peculiar character — is his peculiar philosophy, is best seen in the earliest stages of its formation before those complications have been developed which render it difficult to seize upon itThe cunning speeches of children just as they begin to talk often startle one by their philosophical natureThe drawer of ''Harper's Magazine'' has been filled for years with the sayings of "our three year old" who seems blessed with perennial three-year-old-ness — but if all these stories are true, they are very valuable as showing the character of the childish mind in general, and particularly the philosophical tendencies of children.  I shall not trouble you with the recitation of any of these funny stories — they are stale and therefore flatbut I will mention a case, which has nothing laughable in it — but which illustrates remarkably well how the peculiar differences of men are differences of philosophian method.  (Peirce 1866, CE 1, 501).
+
<p>For instance, you and I are men because we possess those attributes — having two legs, being rational, &c. — which make up the comprehension of ''man''.  Every addition to the comprehension of a term lessens its extension up to a certain point, after that further additions increase the information instead.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Thus, let us commence with the term ''colour''; add to the comprehension of this term, that of ''red''''Red colour'' has considerably less extension than ''colour'';  add to this the comprehension of ''dark'';  ''dark red colour'' has still less [extension].  Add to this the comprehension of ''non-blue'' ''non-blue dark red colour'' has the same extension as ''dark red colour'', so that the ''non-blue'' here performs a work of supererogationit tells us that no ''dark red colour'' is blue, but does none of the proper business of connotation, that of diminishing the extension at all.</p>
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Anthematic Note 3===
+
When we set about comprehending the comprehension of a sign, say, a term or expression, we run into a very troublesome issue as to how many intensions (predicates, properties, qualities) an object of that sign has.  For how do we quantify the number of qualities a thing has?  Without some more or less artificial strait imposed on the collection of qualities, the number appears without limit.
 +
 
 +
Let's pass this by, as Peirce does, for now, and imagine that we have fixed on some way of speaking sensibly about ''the'' comprehension of a sign in a particular set of signs, the collection of which we may use as a language or a medium.
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
Then we can begin to talk about the amount of redundancy, the superfluidity of comprehension, if you will, as Peirce does, that belongs to a given sign, and thus to its object.
|
 
A certain child who is rather backward in learning to speak, — not from dullness, but from a want of aptitude in imitating the words which it hears, — has got to use three words only;  and what are these?  ''Name'', ''story'', and ''matter''.  He says ''name'' when he wishes to know the name of a person or thing;  ''story'' when he wishes to hear a narration or description;  and ''matter'' — a highly abstract and philosophical term — when he wishes to be acquainted with the cause of anything.  ''Name'', ''story'', and ''matter'', therefore, make the foundation of this child's philosophy.  What a wonderful thing that his individuality should have been shown so strongly, at that age, in selecting those three words out of all the equally common ones which he heard about him.  Already he has made his list of categories, which is the principal part of any philosophy.  (Peirce 1866, CE 1, 501).
 
|}
 
  
===Anthematic Note 4===
+
===Commentary Note 3===
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
Constantly, in using these words, this philosophy becomes more and more impressed upon him until, when he arrives at maturity of intellect, he may be able to show that it is a profound and legitimate classificationTell me a man's ''name'', his ''story'', and his ''matter'' or character;  and I know about all there is to know of him.  Aristotle says there are two questions to be asked concerning anything:  the ''oti'' and the ''dioti'', the ''what'' and the ''why'' — the account of premisses and the rational account or explanation;  or as this child would say the 'story' and the ''matter'';  but Aristotle has not noticed that previous to either of these questions must come the fixing of the attention upon the object — the determination of the mind to it as an object — and the demand for this determination is asking for its ''name''.  Here we have therefore in this child, a philosophy which furnishes an emendation upon the mighty Aristotle — the leader of the thought of ages, the prince of philosophers.  (Peirce 1866, CE 1, 501–502).
+
Thus information measures the superfluous comprehension.  And, hence, whenever we make a symbol to express any thing or any attribute we cannot make it so empty that it shall have no superfluous comprehensionI am going, next, to show that inference is symbolization and that the puzzle of the validity of scientific inference lies merely in this superfluous comprehension and is therefore entirely removed by a consideration of the laws of ''information''.
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Anthematic Note 5===
+
In a sense of primal innocence, logical laws bind the vacuum state of any medium that is capable of bearing, delivering, nurturing, and preserving signal meanings.  In other words, when we use symbols, not simple signs, in a channel, language, or medium that is constrained by logical laws, these laws do more than strain, they also exact the generation of symbols upon symbols to fill the requisite logical forms, and so there will always be lots more ways than one to say any given thing you might choose to say.
 +
 
 +
Alternate Version &mdash;
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
In a sense, logical laws bind the initial state of any medium possessed of a capacity to bear, deliver, maintain, and nurture the meanings of signals. In other words, when we use symbols, not mere signs, in a channel, language, or medium constrained by logical laws, these laws do more than confine, they also beget the generation of symbols upon symbols to fill the requisite forms, guaranteeing there will always be ample ways to say any thing that can be said.
|
 
But why should I presume to expound that soul's philosophy;  could I enter fully into it he would have no private personality — he would not be the mysterious Island that every soul is to every other.  No, I dare not attempt to fathom the awful depths of that child's possibilities;  when he grows up, in some way and to some degree he will manifest his character, his philosophy;  then we can judge as much of it as we can see, but its intrinsic worth we never can judge;  it is hid forever in the bosom of its God.  (Peirce 1866, CE 1, 502).
 
|}
 
  
===Anthematic Note 6===
+
===Commentary Note 4===
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>In dialectica autem vestra nullam existimavit esse nec ad melius vivendum nec ad commodius disserendum viam.</p>
+
<p>For this purpose, I must call your attention to the differences there are in the manner in which different representations stand for their objects.</p>
  
<p>Logic, on which your school lays such stress, he [Epicurus] held to be of no effect either as a guide to conduct or as an aid to thought.  (Cicero, ''De Finibus'', 1.19.63).</p>
+
<p>In the first place there are likenesses or copies — such as ''statues'', ''pictures'', ''emblems'', ''hieroglyphics'', and the like. Such representations stand for their objects only so far as they have an actual resemblance to them — that is agree with them in some characters. The peculiarity of such representations is that they do not determine their objects — they stand for anything more or less;  for they stand for whatever they resemble and they resemble everything more or less.</p>
  
<p>Cicero, ''De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum'', With an English Translation by H. Rackham, William Heinemann, London, UK, 1914, 1983.</p>
+
<p>The second kind of representations are such as are set up by a convention of men or a decree of God.  Such are ''tallies'', ''proper names'', &c.  The peculiarity of these ''conventional signs'' is that they represent no character of their objects. Likenesses denote nothing in particular;  ''conventional signs'' connote nothing in particular.</p>
|}
 
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
<p>The third and last kind of representations are ''symbols'' or general representations. They connote attributes and so connote them as to determine what they denote. To this class belong all ''words'' and all ''conceptions''.  Most combinations of words are also symbols. A proposition, an argument, even a whole book may be, and should be, a single symbol.</p>
|
 
<p>Who hath learnt any wit or understanding in Logique?  Where are her faire promises? Nec ad melius vivendum, nec ad commodius disserendum:  Neither to live better nor to dispute fitter.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Montaigne, ''Essays'', Book 3, Chapter 8[http://www.uoregon.edu/~rbear/montaigne/3viii.htm Eprint].</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
In order to speak of the meandering channel, the abdundancy of language, the superfluidity of media, the play in the wheel of symbolism, then, it is necessary to classify the different kinds of signs, the varied ways that signs up to and including symbols, namely, those that are interpretive by dint of their very essence, can be interpreted as being referential to their objects.
|
 
Gentlemen and ladies, I announce to you this theory of immortality for the first time.  It is poorly said, poorly thought;  but its foundation is the rock of truth.  And at least it will serve to illustrate what use might be made by mightier hands of this reviled science, logic, ''nec ad melius vivendum, nec ad commodius disserendum''.  (Peirce 1866, CE 1, page 502).
 
|}
 
  
==Incidental Notes==
+
On running through this familiar yet ever strange refrain for another time, I see that I have scarcely begun to trace the sinews of the linkages among the three types of signs, "the differences there are in the manner in which different representations stand for their objects", the matter of extension and comprehension, and the whole life-cycle of inquiry that engages me most.
  
===Incidental Note 1===
+
===Commentary Note 5===
  
I've arrived, yet again, at a problem that has occupied my attention, every now and then, since my very first readings of Peirce, and that is the question of whether and, if so, to what extent, a sign can be property of an objectThe answer appears to depend on the strength of the senses in which we take the circle of thoughts like "to have", "to own", "to possess", or the substantives "possession", "property", and so on.  In the weaker senses of the underlying schematism, signs can easily, all too easily be properties of objects, though one will likely hear the qualifications "accidental", "relative", "secondary", or words to that effect, quickly dispensed as a way to hedge the bet.  To specify a stronger sense of eigen-valid ownership, emphatic terms like "categorical", "consensual", "genuine", "natural", "objective", "real", "universal", and a host of others may be recruited to drive home the point.
+
Signs, inquiry, and informationLet's focus on that for a while.
  
But the question behind the question is: What qualifies anything to be objective?
+
To put Peirce's examples more in line with the order of his three categories, let us renumber them in the following way:
  
Here are just a few of my own thoughts on the matter.
+
{| cellpadding=4
 
+
|-
I notice that I begin to consider calling something objective whenever there are lots and lots of different ways of looking at it, which is to say, if you think about it, that there are many different signs of it that can be sensibly related among each another, to wit, no objectivity without interoperability.
+
| &nbsp; || 1.  || The conjunctive term "spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit".
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; || 2.1. || The disjunctive term "man or horse or kangaroo or whale".
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; || 2.2. || The disjunctive term "neat or swine or sheep or deer".
 +
|}
  
So consider this Semiotic Proof Of The Objectivity Of God:  If there really were Nine Billion Names Of God, as in the Arthur Clarke story that I read as a child, then I would consider that a sufficient proof of God's objectivity.  AC being British, I reckon this means 9 x 10^12 names, but I will have to check, as it's been a while since I last read the story.
+
Peirce suggests an analogy or a parallelism between the corresponding elements of the following triples:
  
* Incidental Musements:
+
{| cellpadding=4
** http://math.cofc.edu/faculty/kasman/MATHFICT/mf82.html
+
|-
** http://www.lsi.usp.br/~rbianchi/clarke/ACC.Biography.html
+
| &nbsp; || 1. || Conjunctive Term || : || Iconical Sign || : || Abductive Case
 +
|-
 +
| &nbsp; || 2. || Disjunctive Term || : || Indicial Sign || : || Inductive Rule
 +
|}
  
===Incidental Note 2===
+
Here is an overview of the two patterns of reasoning, along with the first steps of an analysis in sign-theoretic terms:
  
Before I go on with Peirce's story of information, I want to stop for a while, at least long enough to redraw a favorite old picture of mine, that illustrates what all of this has to do with artificial and natural kinds, as they have been classically and humorously typified by the example that is commonly known as the case of the "Plucked Chicken".
+
1.  Conjunctive term "spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit".
 
 
The following Figure is largely self-explanatory.
 
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="10"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                                                 |
+
|     Objective Framework    |   Interpretive Framework    |
|                    Creature                    |
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                        o                       |
+
|                                                           |
|                       / \                      |
+
|                               t_1  t_2  ...  t_5  t_6    |
|                     /  \                      |
+
|                                 o    o        o    o     |
|                     /     \                    |
+
|                                   *  *      *  *       |
|                   /       \                    |
+
|                                     *  *    *  *         |
|                   /         \                  |
+
|                                       * *  * *           |
|                 /           \                  |
+
|                                         ** **             |
|       Apterous o             o Biped          |
+
|                                        z o               |
|                 |\           /|                |
+
|                                           |\             |
|                 | \         / |                |
+
|                                           | \ Rule      |
|                 |  \      /  |                |
+
|                                           |  \ y=>z       |
|                 |  \     /  |                |
+
|                                           |  \           |
|                 |    \   /    |                |
+
|                                     Fact |    \         |
|                 |    \ /    |                |
+
|                                     x=>z |    o y      |
|                 |     o G   |                |
+
|                                           |    /          |
|                 |     / \    |                |
+
|                                           |   /           |
|                 |   /   \    |                |
+
|                                           | / Case      |
|                 |   /     \  |                |
+
|                                           | /  x=>y       |
|                | /       \  |                |
+
|                                           |/             |
|                 | /         \ |                |
+
|                                         x o              |
|                 |/          \|                 |
+
|                                                           |
|    Human Being o             o Plucked Chicken |
+
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
|                                                 |
+
| Conjunctive Predicate z, Abduction to the Case x => y     |
| =   Apterous    featherless animal      |
+
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
| =   Bipedal    =   two-legged being        |
+
|                                                           |
| =   Critter    =   creature, creation      |
+
| !S!  = !I!  = {t_1, t_2, t_3, t_4, t_5, t_6, x, y, z}   |
| =   GLB(A, B)  =   A |^| B                |
+
|                                                           |
| =   Human Being                            |
+
| t_1  = "spherical"                                      |
| =   Plucked Chicken                        |
+
| t_2  = "bright"                                          |
|                                                 |
+
| t_3  = "fragrant"                                        |
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
| t_4  = "juicy"                                          |
Figure 1.  On Being Human
+
| t_5  = "tropical"                                        |
 +
| t_6  = "fruit"                                          |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
| x    =  "subject"                                        |
 +
| y    = "orange"                                          |
 +
| z    = "spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit"  |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
The way the joke goes, the straight man "defines" a human being H as an "apterous biped" A B, a two-legged critter without feathers, and then the wiseguy hits him over the head with a plucked chicken, and by dint of this koan, he achieves enlightenment about the marks that distinguish kindness of the artless kind from the crasser kinds of artificial kindness.  Leastwise, at any rate, that's the way that I heard it.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>A similar line of thought may be gone through in reference to hypothesis.  In this case we must start with the consideration of the term:</p>
  
Our focus at present is on the extra measure of constraint, in other words, the information, that comes between Pow(X), the full lattice of all possible subsets of the universe X, and Nat(X), the more constrained, determined, or informed lattice of "natural kinds" that we commonly acknowledge in our more practical outlooks on this universe of discourse.
+
<center>"spherical, bright, fragrant, juicy, tropical fruit".</center>
  
The next two Figures present different ways of viewing the situation.
+
<p>Such a term, formed by the sum of the comprehensions of several terms, is called a conjunctive term.  A conjunctive term has no extension adequate to its comprehension.  Thus the only spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit we know is the orange and that has many other characters besides these.  Hence, such a term is of no use whatever.  If it occurs in the predicate and something is said to be a spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit, since there is nothing which is all this which is not an orange, we may say that this is an orange at once.  On the other hand, if the conjunctive term is subject and we know that every spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit necessarily has certain properties, it must be that we know more than that and can simplify the subject.  Thus a conjunctive term may always be replaced by a simple one.  So if we find that light is capable of producing certain phenomena which could only be enumerated by a long conjunction of terms, we may be sure that this compound predicate may be replaced by a simple one.  And if only one simple one is known in which the conjunctive term is contained, this must be provisionally adopted.  (Peirce, CE 1, 470).</p>
 +
|}
  
Think of the initial set-up as being cast in a lattice of arbitrary setsWithin that setting, the "greatest lower bound" (GLB) of the extensions of A and B is their set-theoretic intersection, G = GLB(A, B) = A |^| B.  This G covers the desired class H but also admits the risible category P.
+
2Disjunctive term "neat or swine or sheep or deer".
 
 
Suppose that we are clued into the fact that not all sets in Pow(X) are admissible, allowable, material, natural, pertinent, or relevant to the aims of the discussion in view, and that only some mysterious 'je ne sais quoi' subset of "natural kinds", Nat(X) c Pow(X), is at stake, a limitation that, whatever else it does, excludes the set P and all of that ilk from beneath GLB(A, B).  Though it is difficult to say exactly how we are supposed to apply this global information, we "know" it in the sense of being able to detect its local effects, for instance, giving us the more "natural" lattice structures that are shown on the right sides of Figures 2 and 3.  Relative to these "natural orders", we can observe that H = GLB(A, B), more precisely, the result of the lattice operation associated with the conjunction, GLB, or intersection of A and B gives us just the lattice element H.  Thus in this more natural setting the proposed definition works okay.
 
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="10"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                                                 |
+
|     Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
|          Pow      >>>--->>>      Nat          |
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                                                 |
+
|                                                           |
|           C                        C          |
+
|                                         w o              |
|           o                        o          |
+
|                                           |\             |
|         / \                       / \          |
+
|                                           | \ Rule      |
|         /  \                     /  \        |
+
|                                           | \ v=>w       |
|       /    \                  /    \        |
+
|                                           |  \           |
|       /      \                /      \      |
+
|                                     Fact |    \         |
|     /        \               /        \      |
+
|                                     u=>w |    o v       |
|     /          \             /          \    |
+
|                                          |    /         |
| A o            o B       A o            o B  |
+
|                                           |   /          |
|    |\          /|          |            /    |
+
|                                           / Case       |
|   | \        / |          |           /      |
+
|                                          | / u=>v       |
|   \       |           |         /      |
+
|                                           |/             |
|   |   \    /   |           |         /        |
+
|                                         u o              |
|   |   \   /    |           |        /        |
+
|                                         ** **            |
|   |    \ /     |           |      /          |
+
|                                       * *   * *           |
|    |      o G   |           |     /          |
+
|                                     *  *     *  *        |
|   |     / \    |           |    /            |
+
|                                   *  *      *  *       |
|   |   /  \    |           |    /             |
+
|                                 o   o         o   o    |
|   |   /    \  |           |  /              |
+
|                               s_1  s_2      s_3  s_4    |
|   | /      \ |           /              |
+
|                                                           |
|   | /        \ |          | /                |
+
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
|    |/          \|           |/                |
+
| Disjunctive Subject u, Induction to the Rule v => w      |
H o            o P      H o                  |
+
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
|                                                 |
+
|                                                           |
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {s_1, s_2, s_3, s_4, u, v, w}             |
Figure 2.  Arbitrary Kinds Versus Natural Kinds
+
|                                                           |
 +
| s_1  =  "neat"                                            |
 +
| s_2 = "swine"                                          |
 +
| s_3 =  "sheep"                                          |
 +
| s_4  =  "deer"                                            |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
| u   =  "neat or swine or sheep or deer"                  |
 +
| v    =  "cloven-hoofed"                                  |
 +
| w    = "herbivorous"                                    |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
An alternative way to look at the transformation in our views as we pass from the arbitrary lattice Pow(X) to the natural lattice Nat(X) is presented in Figure 3, where the equal signs (=) suggest that the nodes for G and H are logically identified with each otherIn this picture, the measure of the interval that previously existed between G and H, now shrunk to nil, affords a rough indication of the local quantity of information that went into forming the natural result.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
Hence if we find out that neat are herbivorous, swine are herbivorous, sheep are herbivorous, and deer are herbivorous;  we may be sure that there is some class of animals which covers all these, all the members of which are herbivorous.  Now a disjunctive term — such as "neat swine sheep and deer", or "man, horse, kangaroo, and whale" — is not a true symbol.  It does not denote what it does in consequence of its connotation, as a symbol does;  on the contrary, no part of its connotation goes at all to determine what it denotes — it is in that respect a mere accident if it denote anything.  Its ''sphere'' is determined by the concurrence of the four members, man, horse, kangaroo, and whale, or neat swine sheep and deer as the case may bePeirce, CE 1, 468-469).
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Commentary Note 6===
 +
 
 +
Before we return to Peirce's description of a near duality between icons and indices, involving a reciprocal symmetry between intensions and extensions of concepts that becomes perturbed to the breaking and yet the growing point by the receipt of a fresh bit of information, I think that it may help to recall a few pieces of technical terminology that Peirce introduced into this discussion.
 +
 
 +
'''Passage 1'''
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
|
|                                                |
+
<p>It is important to distinguish between the two functions of a word: 1st to denote something — to stand for something, and 2nd to mean something — or as Mr. Mill phrases it — to ''connote'' something.</p>
|          Pow      >>>--->>>      Nat          |
 
|                                                |
 
|          C                        C          |
 
|          o                        o          |
 
|          / \                      / \          |
 
|        /  \                    /  \        |
 
|        /    \                  /    \        |
 
|      /      \                /      \      |
 
|      /        \              /        \      |
 
|    /          \            /          \    |
 
| A o            o B      A o            o B  |
 
|    |\          /|            \          /    |
 
|    | \        / |            \        /      |
 
|    |  \      /  |              \      /      |
 
|    |  \    /  |              \    /        |
 
|    |    \  /    |                \  /        |
 
|    |    \ /    |                \ /          |
 
|    |      o G    |                G o          |
 
|    |    / \    |                  =          |
 
|    |    /  \    |                  =          |
 
|    |  /    \  |                  =          |
 
|    |  /      \  |                  =          |
 
|    | /        \ |                  =          |
 
|    |/          \|                  =          |
 
|  H o            o P              H o          |
 
|                                                |
 
o-------------------------------------------------o
 
Figure 3. Arbitrary Kinds Versus Natural Kinds
 
</pre></font>
 
  
===Incidental Note 3===
+
<p>What it denotes is called its ''Sphere''.  What it connotes is called its ''Content''.  Thus the ''sphere'' of the word ''man'' is for me every man I know;  and for each of you it is every man you know.  The ''content'' of ''man'' is all that we know of all men, as being two-legged, having souls, having language, &c., &c.  It is plain that both the ''sphere'' and the ''content'' admit of more and less.  &hellip;</p>
  
Seeing as how I have trouble understanding any thing at all of much complexity without a picture to guide me -- and not to victimize me! said Jon apotropaically -- whether it's that I can't get into it in the first place, or that I can't hang onto it for very long if I do, I cannot help but to keep trying to form a clearer picture of what Peirce is saying about these relationships of the kinds of signs and the aspects of the sign relation to the kinds of inference that serve a function in the "logic of science", or inquiry.
+
<p>Now the sphere considered as a quantity is called the Extension;  and the content considered as quantity is called the Comprehension.  Extension and Comprehension are also termed Breadth and Depth.  So that a wider term is one which has a greater extension;  a narrower one is one which has a less extension.  A higher term is one which has a less Comprehension and a lower one has more.</p>
  
It was not my intention to keep you in suspense quite so long about the sorts of things that go into the "objective framework" (OF) of my diploid arrangement, indeed, I have discussed this on numerous prior occasions, but this time I wanted make the explanation of the plan as clear as I possibly could, and that has obliged me to do a bit of stalling before I attempted my next installment.
+
<p>The narrower term is said to be contained under the wider one;  and the higher term to be contained in the lower one.</p>
  
So it's back to the drawing board, and the half-wetted diptych, to see if I can paint a congenial picture of icons and indices. This time around I will temporarily set aside trying to fathom all of the ins and outs of Peirce's relatively intricate cases of conjunctive terms and disjunctive terms that fall short of being genuine symbols, and just try to detail my own way of seeing the forms of icons and indices in this dual frame.
+
<p>We have then:</p>
 
 
How to begin?  It is said that the usual vertebrate brain begins with a pleroma of neural connections that has to be trimmed as its creature grows and learns.  Just by way of analogy, then, nothing more literal than that, let me draw a Figure that is meant to suggest a sign relation with all possible 3-ads of some 3-ple product space !O!x!S!x!I!.
 
 
 
With the powers invested in me by my poet's license and the full extent of pictographic conventionality that I may have in my command, let me draw the following picture to suggest a sign relation Q = !O!x!S!x!I!.  Taken in its own right, Q has the structure of a 3-partite hypergraph, but the Figure below is intended merely to approximate selected aspects of its plenipotential structure, suggesting a complete bigraph, that is, a complete 2-partite graph, stretching between the points of !O! and the points of !S! = !I!, finished up with a complete graph on the points of a syntactic set !S! = !I!.  According to long-standing conventions, these graphs can be written as K_m,n = K(!O!, !S!) and K_n = K(!S!), where m, n are the number of points in !O! and !S! = !I!, respectively.
 
 
 
Among those in the know, the technical gnomen for a pleromic sign relation of this empty-full variety is a "muddle".
 
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|    Objective Framework    |   Interpretive Framework    |
+
|                             |                            |
 +
|  What is 'denoted'          |  What is 'connoted'        |
 +
|                            |                            |
 +
|  Sphere                    |  Content                    |
 +
|                            |                            |
 +
|  Extension                  |  Comprehension              |
 +
|                            |                            |
 +
|          ( wider          |        ( lower            |
 +
|  Breadth  <                |  Depth  <                  |
 +
|          ( narrower        |        ( higher            |
 +
|                            |                            |
 +
|  What is contained 'under'  |  What is contained 'in'     |
 +
|                            |                            |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                                                          |
 
|              o                            s )            |
 
|              o    ·                ·    s ))          |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))          |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s ))))        |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))))        |
 
|              o · · · · · · · · · · · · · · s ))))))      |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))))        |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s ))))        |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))          |
 
|              o    ·                ·    s ))          |
 
|              o                            s )            |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Muddled Sign Relation Q = !O!x!S!x!I!                    |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
===Incidental Note 4===
+
<p>The principle of explicatory or deductive reasoning then is that:</p>
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
<p>Every part of a word's Content belongs to every part of its Sphere,</p>
|
 
<p>The Critique Of Pure Reason</p>
 
  
<p>Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)</p>
+
<p>or:</p>
  
<p>Translated by J.M.D. Meiklejohn</p>
+
<p>Whatever is contained ''in'' a word belongs to whatever is contained under it.</p>
  
<p>Preface to the First Edition, 1781</p>
+
<p>Now this maxim would not be true if the Extension and Comprehension were directly proportional to one another;  this is to say if the Greater the one the greater the other.  For in that case, though the whole Content would belong to the whole Sphere;  yet only a particular part of it would belong to a part of that Sphere and not every part to every part.  On the other hand if the Comprehension and Extension were not in some way proportional to one another, that is if terms of different spheres could have the same content or terms of the same content different spheres;  then there would be no such fact as a content's ''belonging'' to a sphere and hence again the maxim would fail.  For the maxim to be true, then, it is absolutely necessary that the comprehension and extension should be inversely proportional to one another.  That is that the greater the sphere, the less the content.</p>
  
<p>Human reason, in one sphere of its cognition, is called upon to consider questions, which it cannot decline, as they are presented by its own nature, but which it cannot answer, as they transcend every faculty of the mind.</p>
+
<p>Now this evidently trueIf we take the term ''man'' and increase its ''comprehension'' by the addition of ''black'', we have ''black man'' and this has less ''extension'' than ''man''So if we take ''black man'' and add ''non-black man'' to its sphere, we have ''man'' again, and so have decreased the comprehensionSo that whenever the extension is increased the comprehension is diminished and ''vice versa''.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 459–460).</p>
 
 
<p>It falls into this difficulty without any fault of its ownIt begins with principles, which cannot be dispensed with in the field of experience, and the truth and sufficiency of which are, at the same time, insured by experienceWith these principles it rises, in obedience to the laws of its own nature, to ever higher and more remote conditions.  But it quickly discovers that, in this way, its labours must remain ever incomplete, because new questions never cease to present themselves;  and thus it finds itself compelled to have recourse to principles which transcend the region of experience, while they are regarded by common sense without distrustIt thus falls into confusion and contradictions, from which it conjectures the presence of latent errors, which, however, it is unable to discover, because the principles it employs, transcending the limits of experience, cannot be tested by that criterion.  The arena of these endless contests is called Metaphysic.</p>
 
 
 
<p>http://www.philosophy.ru/library/kant/01/cr_pure_reason.html</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Incidental Note 5===
+
'''Passage 2'''
 
 
No, I mean *really, really* irritating doubts ...
 
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>The precursors of hatred arise from the infant's response to what William James (1890) called the "booming buzzing confusion" that assaults the infant's sensorium at perception's birthThe "stranger anxiety" evident as early as eight months indicates that the mental capacity to perceive differences in objects and to organize subjective psychic forces has already begunFreud (1915) tells us that "hate, as a relation to objects, is older than love" (p. 139)Freud continues, "As an expression of the reaction of unpleasure evoked by objects, it always remains in an intimate relation with the self-preservative instincts;  so that sexual and ego-instincts can readily develop an antithesis which repeats that of love and hate".</p>
+
<p>The highest terms are therefore broadest and the lowest terms the narrowest.  We can take a term so broad that it contains all other spheres under it.  Then it will have no content whatever.  There is but one such term — with its synonyms — it is ''Being''.  We can also take a term so low that it contains all other content within itThen it will have no sphere whateverThere is but one such term — it is ''Nothing''.</p>
  
<p>Eloise Moore Agger (issue ed.), "Prologue", Special Issue on "Hatred And Its Rewards", ''Psychoanalytic Inquiry'' 20(3), 2000. [http://www.psychoanalyticinquiry.com/ Eprint].</p>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:60%"
 +
|
 +
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 +
o------------------------o------------------------o
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
|  Being                |  Nothing              |
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
|  All breadth          | All depth            |
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
|  No depth              |  No breadth            |
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
o------------------------o------------------------o
 +
</pre></font>
 
|}
 
|}
  
We began, as always, 'in mudias res', in that irritatingly doubtful state of "booming buzzing confusion" that clued us in mostly to the anterior projection of William James' inciteful ''Psychology'' and we woke into a stream of consciousness staring at the appended picture of a "muddled sign relation" Q = !O!x!S!x!I!.
+
<p>We can conceive of terms so narrow that they are next to nothing, that is have an absolutely individual sphere.  Such terms would be innumerable in number.  We can also conceive of terms so high that they are next to ''being'', that is have an entirely simple content.  Such terms would also be innumerable.</p>
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:60%"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
o------------------------o------------------------o
|     Objective Framework    |   Interpretive Framework    |
+
|                       |                        |
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
|  Simple terms          | Individual terms      |
|                                                          |
+
|                        |                        |
|             o                            s )            |
+
o------------------------o------------------------o
|              o    ·                ·    s ))          |
+
</pre></font>
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))          |
+
|}
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s ))))        |
+
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))))        |
+
<p>But such terms though conceivable in one sense — that is intelligible in their conditions — are yet impossible.  You never can narrow down to an individual.  Do you say Daniel Webster is an individual?  He is so in common parlance, but in logical strictness he is not.  We think of certain images in our memory — a platform and a noble form uttering convincing and patriotic words — a statue — certain printed matter — and we say that which that speaker and the man whom that statue was taken for and the writer of this speech — that which these are in common is Daniel Webster.  Thus, even the proper name of a man is a general term or the name of a class, for it names a class of sensations and thoughts.  The true individual term the absolutely singular ''this'' & ''that'' cannot be reached.  Whatever has comprehension must be general.</p>
|              o · · · · · · · · · · · · · · s ))))))      |
+
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))))        |
+
<p>In like manner, it is impossible to find any simple term.  This is obvious from this consideration.  If there is any simple term, simple terms are innumerable for in that case all attributes which are not simple are made up of simple attributes.  Now none of these attributes can be affirmed or denied universally of whatever has any one.  For let ''A'' be one simple term and ''B'' be another.  Now suppose we can say All ''A'' is ''B'';  then ''B'' is contained in ''A''.  If, therefore, ''A'' contains anything but ''B'' it is a compound term, but ''A'' is different from ''B'', and is simple;  hence it cannot be that All ''A'' is ''B''.  Suppose No ''A'' is ''B'', then not-''B'' is contained in ''A'';  if therefore ''A'' contains anything besides not-''B'' it is not a simple term;  but if it is the same as not-''B'', it is not a simple term but is a term relative to ''B''.  Now it is a simple term and therefore Some ''A'' is ''B''.  Hence if we take any two simple terms and call one ''A'' and the other ''B'' we have:</p>
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s ))))        |
+
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))          |
+
<p><center>Some ''A'' is ''B''</center>
|              o    ·                ·    s ))          |
+
and
|              o                            s )            |
+
<center>Some ''A'' is not ''B''</center></p>
|                                                          |
+
 
|                                                          |
+
<p>or in other words the universe will contain every possible kind of thing afforded by the permutation of simple qualities.  Now the universe does not contain all these things;  it contains no ''well-known green horse''.  Hence the consequence of supposing a simple term to exist is an error of fact.  There are several other ways of showing this besides the one that I have adopted.  They all concur to show that whatever has extension must be composite.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 460–461).</p>
| Muddled Sign Relation Q = !O!x!S!x!I!                    |
+
|}
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
There are many ways that a muddle can resolve itself, if you'll excuse the animistical sympathetic fallacy of yielding the muddle credit for its own resolution.
+
'''Passage 3'''
  
One may regard the process of resolution as the differential reinforcement of certain connections in preference to others, or as the emphatic differentiation of certain figures in the carpet or the tapestry that is "finding itself" being woven on the loom of this tangled skein, or brain, as the case be.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>The moment, then, that we pass from nothing and the vacuity of being to any content or sphere, we come at once to a composite content and sphere.  In fact, extension and comprehension — like space and time — are quantities which are not composed of ultimate elements;  but every part however small is divisible.</p>
  
A long time before people had their minds quite set on our present notions of set theory, they used to speak of "general denotation" or "plural reference", in which a sign was related to a manifold variety of objects, whether "equivocally", in different senses, or "univocally, in the same sense, connotation, or definition of the sign (for example, the term or the word) in question, very roughly as might be suggested by the following Figure:
+
<p>The consequence of this fact is that when we wish to enumerate the sphere of a term — a process termed ''division'' — or when we wish to run over the content of a term — a process called ''definition'' — since we cannot take the elements of our enumeration singly but must take them in groups, there is danger that we shall take some element twice over, or that we shall omit some.  Hence the extension and comprehension which we know will be somewhat indeterminate.  But we must distinguish two kinds of these quantities.  If we were to subtilize we might make other distinctions but I shall be content with two.  They are the extension and comprehension relatively to our actual knowledge, and what these would be were our knowledge perfect.</p>
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
<p>Logicians have hitherto left the doctrine of extension and comprehension in a very imperfect state owing to the blinding influence of a psychological treatment of the matter.  They have, therefore, not made this distinction and have reduced the comprehension of a term to what it would be if we had no knowledge of fact at all.  I mention this because if you should come across the matter I am now discussing in any book, you would find the matter left in quite a different state.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462).</p>
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
|}
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|              o                                            |
 
|              o    ·                                      |
 
|              o    ·    ·                                |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·                          |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·                    |
 
|              o · · · · · · · · · · · · · · s              |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·                    |
 
|              o    ·    ·    ·                          |
 
|              o    ·    ·                                |
 
|             o    ·                                      |
 
|              o                                            |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| General Denotation Or Plural Reference                    |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
So this is one sort of pattern of highlights, reinforcement, or saliency that we often find spontaneously generating itself and emerging from the muddle like some dragonfly from a pond's muck.
+
===Commentary Note 7===
  
The roughly dual pattern of pregnance comes soon to mind, where this would show something like the next arrangement of emphases.
+
I find one more patch of material from Peirce's early lectures that we need to cover the subject of indices.  I include a piece of the context, even if it overlaps a bit with fragments that still live in recent memory.
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
'''Passage 4'''
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                            s )            |
 
|                                      ·    s ))          |
 
|                                ·    ·    s )))          |
 
|                          ·    ·    ·    s ))))        |
 
|                    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))))        |
 
|              o · · · · · · · · · · · · · · s ))))))      |
 
|                    ·    ·    ·    ·    s )))))        |
 
|                    ·    ·    ·    ·    s ))))        |
 
|                          ·    ·    ·    s )))          |
 
|                                      ·    s ))          |
 
|                                            s )            |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Referential And Semiotic Equivalence Classes              |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
This is a genroic type of a motif that we shall find to be of extremely fruitful use again and again, where a bunch of signs ripens and falls into various and sundry "equivalence classes", either because they all denote the same object or because they all connote one another, or most happily of all, both together. These are known as "referential equivalence classes" (REC's)and "semiotic equivalence classes" (SEC's), respectively.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>Yet there are combinations of words and combinations of conceptions which are not strictly speaking symbols. These are of two kinds of which I will give you instances. We have first cases like:</p>
  
===Incidental Note 6===
+
<center>man and horse and kangaroo and whale,</center>
 +
 
 +
<p>and secondly, cases like:</p>
 +
 
 +
<center>spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit.</center>
 +
 
 +
<p>The first of these terms has no comprehension which is adequate to the limitation of the extension.  In fact, men, horses, kangaroos, and whales have no attributes in common which are not possessed by the entire class of mammals.  For this reason, this disjunctive term, ''man and horse and kangaroo and whale'', is of no use whatever.  For suppose it is the subject of a sentence;  suppose we know that men and horses and kangaroos and whales have some common character.  Since they have no common character which does not belong to the whole class of mammals, it is plain that ''mammals'' may be substituted for this term.  Suppose it is the predicate of a sentence, and that we know that something is either a man or a horse or a kangaroo or a whale;  then, the person who has found out this, knows more about this thing than that it is a mammal;  he therefore knows which of these four it is for these four have nothing in common except what belongs to all other mammals.  Hence in this case the particular one may be substituted for the disjunctive term.  A disjunctive term, then, — one which aggregates the extension of several symbols, — may always be replaced by a simple term.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Hence if we find out that neat are herbivorous, swine are herbivorous, sheep are herbivorous, and deer are herbivorous;  we may be sure that there is some class of animals which covers all these, all the members of which are herbivorous.  Now a disjunctive term — such as ''neat swine sheep and deer'', or ''man, horse, kangaroo, and whale'' — is not a true symbol.  It does not denote what it does in consequence of its connotation, as a symbol does;  on the contrary, no part of its connotation goes at all to determine what it denotes — it is in that respect a mere accident if it denote anything.  Its ''sphere'' is determined by the concurrence of the four members, man, horse, kangaroo, and whale, or neat swine sheep and deer as the case may be.</p>
 +
<p>Now those who are not accustomed to the homologies of the conceptions of men and words, will think it very fanciful if I say that this concurrence of four terms to determine the sphere of a disjunctive term resembles the arbitrary convention by which men agree that a certain sign shall stand for a certain thing.  And yet how is such a convention made?  The men all look upon or think of the thing and each gets a certain conception and then they agree that whatever calls up or becomes an object of that conception in either of them shall be denoted by the sign.  In the one case, then, we have several different words and the disjunctive term denotes whatever is the object of either of them.  In the other case, we have several different conceptions — the conceptions of different men — and the conventional sign stands for whatever is an object of either of them.  It is plain the two cases are essentially the same, and that a disjunctive term is to be regarded as a conventional sign or index.  And we find both agree in having a determinate extension but an inadequate comprehension.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 468–469).</p>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Commentary Note 8===
 +
 
 +
I'm going to make yet another try at following the links that Peirce makes among conventions, disjunctive terms, indexical signs, and inductive rules.  For this purpose, I'll break the text up into smaller pieces, and pick out just those parts of it that have to do with the indexical aspect of things.
 +
 
 +
Before I can get to this, though, I will need to deal with the uncertainty that I am experiencing over the question as to whether a ''connotation'' is just another ''notation'', and thus belongs to the interpretive framework, that is, the ''SI''-plane, or whether it is an objective property, a quality of objects of terms.  I have decided to finesse the issue by forcing my own brand of interpretation on the next text, where the trouble starts:
  
Ah Bartleby!  Ah Humanity!
+
'''Passage 1'''
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>At first Bartleby did an extraordinary quantity of writing. As if long famishing for something to copy, he seemed to gorge himself on my documents.  There was no pause for digestion.  He ran a day and night line, copying by sun-light and by candle-light. I should have been quite delighted with his application, had he been cheerfully industrious.  But he wrote on silently, palely, mechanically.</p>
+
<p>It is important to distinguish between the two functions of a word: 1st to denote something to stand for something, and 2nd to mean something — or as Mr. Mill phrases it — to ''connote'' something.</p>
  
<p>It is, of course, an indispensable part of a scrivener's business to verify the accuracy of his copy, word by word.  Where there are two or more scriveners in an office, they assist each other in this examination, one reading from the copy, the other holding the original.  It is a very dull, wearisome, and lethargic affair.  I can readily imagine that to some sanguine temperaments it would be altogether intolerable.  For example, I cannot credit that the mettlesome poet Byron would have contentedly sat down with Bartleby to examine a law document of, say five hundred pages, closely written in a crimpy hand.</p>
+
<p>What it denotes is called its ''Sphere''.  What it connotes is called its ''Content''.  Thus the ''sphere'' of the word ''man'' is for me every man I know;  and for each of you it is every man you knowThe ''content'' of ''man'' is all that we know of all men, as being two-legged, having souls, having language, &c., &c.  It is plain that both the ''sphere'' and the ''content'' admit of more and less. &hellip;</p>
  
<p>Now and then, in the haste of business, it had been my habit to assist in comparing some brief document myself, calling Turkey or Nippers for this purposeOne object I had in placing Bartleby so handy to me behind the screen, was to avail myself of his services on such trivial occasionsIt was on the third day, I think, of his being with me, and before any necessity had arisen for having his own writing examined, that, being much hurried to complete a small affair I had in hand, I abruptly called to BartlebyIn my haste and natural expectancy of instant compliance, I sat with my head bent over the original on my desk, and my right hand sideways, and somewhat nervously extended with the copy, so that immediately upon emerging from his retreat, Bartleby might snatch it and proceed to business without the least delay.</p>
+
<p>Now the sphere considered as a quantity is called the Extension;  and the content considered as quantity is called the ComprehensionExtension and Comprehension are also termed Breadth and DepthSo that a wider term is one which has a greater extension;  a narrower one is one which has a less extensionA higher term is one which has a less Comprehension and a lower one has more.</p>
  
<p>In this very attitude did I sit when I called to him, rapidly stating what it was I wanted him to do -- namely, to examine a small paper with me.  Imagine my surprise, nay, my consternation, when without moving from his privacy, Bartleby in a singularly mild, firm voice, replied, "I would prefer not to."</p>
+
<p>The narrower term is said to be contained under the wider one;  and the higher term to be contained in the lower one.</p>
  
<p>"Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall-Street", By Herman Melville, First published Nov–Dec 1853, In ''Putnam's Monthly Magazine'', 2-11 and 2-12, NY.  Present text is pp. 19–20, taken from pages 13–45, ''The Piazza Tales, & Other Prose Pieces, 1839–1860'', Volume Nine from ''The Writings of Herman Melville, The Northwestern–Newberry Edition'', Editors of Volume 9:  Harrison Hayford, Alma A. MacDougall, G. Thomas Tanselle, Northwestern University Press and The Newberry Library, Evanston and Chicago, IL, 1987, 1992.</p>
+
<p>We have then:</p>
|}
 
 
 
Let us examine a special case of "general denotation" or "plural reference", one in which we select a sample, perhaps but a single representative object, to serve as a sign of the entire collection from which it was apothematized.
 
 
 
Here is the Figure:
 
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|     Objective Framework    |   Interpretive Framework    |
+
|                             |                             |
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
| What is 'denoted'          | What is 'connoted'        |
|                                                          |
+
|                             |                             |
|             o                                            |
+
| Sphere                    | Content                   |
|             o    ·                                      |
+
|                             |                            |
|             o    ·    ·                                |
+
| Extension                  |  Comprehension             |
|             o    ·    ·    ·                          |
+
|                             |                            |
|             o    ·    ·    ·    ·                   |
+
|           ( wider          |        ( lower            |
|             o = = = = = = = = = = = = = = s              |
+
| Breadth  <                |  Depth  <                  |
|              o    ·    ·    ·    ·                    |
+
|           ( narrower        |        ( higher            |
|             o    ·    ·    ·                          |
+
|                             |                            |
|             o    ·    ·                                |
+
| What is contained 'under'  |  What is contained 'in'    |
|             o    ·                                      |
+
|                             |                            |
|             o                                            |
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                                                           |
 
|                                                           |
 
| General Denotation Or Plural Reference Via A Sample      |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
 +
 +
<p>The principle of explicatory or deductive reasoning then is that:</p>
 +
 +
<p>Every part of a word's Content belongs to every part of its Sphere,</p>
  
The very same entity now serves in a double role, hopefully without too much duplicity, but we all know how that can be.  Polled as a member of its own constituency, it functions as any other object of any other sign.  Invested in the office of a typical representative, it serves its term as any term might, standing for the body politic from which it was lift.
+
<p>or:</p>
  
Every setting of a general denotation or a plural reference, not just the ones of this exemplary species, is amenable to having its part in the muddle sorted out along the lines of at least two different "factorization schemes". These are easier visualized than verbalized, so here is the Figure:
+
<p>Whatever is contained ''in'' a word belongs to whatever is contained under it.</p>
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
<p>Now this maxim would not be true if the Extension and Comprehension were directly proportional to one another;  this is to say if the Greater the one the greater the other.  For in that case, though the whole Content would belong to the whole Sphere;  yet only a particular part of it would belong to a part of that Sphere and not every part to every part.  On the other hand if the Comprehension and Extension were not in some way proportional to one another, that is if terms of different spheres could have the same content or terms of the same content different spheres;  then there would be no such fact as a content's ''belonging'' to a sphere and hence again the maxim would fail.  For the maxim to be true, then, it is absolutely necessary that the comprehension and extension should be inversely proportional to one another.  That is that the greater the sphere, the less the content.</p>
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
 
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
+
<p>Now this evidently true.  If we take the term ''man'' and increase its ''comprehension'' by the addition of ''black'', we have ''black man'' and this has less ''extension'' than ''man''.  So if we take ''black man'' and add ''non-black man'' to its sphere, we have ''man'' again, and so have decreased the comprehension. So that whenever the extension is increased the comprehension is diminished and ''vice versa''. (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 459–460).</p>
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
|}
|                                                          |
+
 
|              q = Humanity                                |
+
I am going to treat Peirce's use of the ''quantity consideration'' as a significant operator that transforms its argument from the syntactic domain ''S'' &cup; ''I'' to the objective domain ''O''.
|            /|\    ·                                      |
+
 
|            / | \        ·                                |
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
|          / | \              ·                          |
+
|
|          /   |  \                  ·                    |
+
<p>Now the sphere considered as a quantity is called the Extension;</br>
|         ooooooooooo }}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}} s =  Bartleby  |
+
and the content considered as quantity is called the Comprehension.</p>
|          ·  ·  ·                        |              |
+
|}
|                ·  ·  ·                    |              |
+
 
|                        · · ·              |              |
+
Taking this point of view, then, I will consider the Extensions of terms and the Comprehensions of terms, to be ''quantities'', in effect, objective formal elements that are subject to being compared with one another within their respective domains.  In particular, I will view them as elements of partially ordered sets.  On my reading of Peirce's text, the word ''content'' is still ambiguous from context of use to context of use, but I will simply let that be as it may, hoping that it will suffice to fix the meaning of the more technical term ''comprehension''.
|                              ···          |              |
 
|                                      ·    |              |
 
|                                            i = 'Humanity' |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                           |
 
| Factorization Of A Fiber Via Objects And Via Signs        |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
I could explain more today, but I would prefer not to.
+
This is still experimental &mdash; I'll just have to see how it works out over time.
  
===Incidental Note 7===
+
===Commentary Note 9===
  
Let me correct one major slip and a few minor typos in the Figure that I gave last time, and then proceed to explain what I can see rightly in this picture of two distinct ways of factoring a fiber.  The more serious mislabeling is that the interpretant sign ''i'' that was newly inserted in the interpretive framework should have been set equal to the sign value "Humanity" and not the property value ''Humanity''The quotes are needed in order to emphasize that ''i'' is a sign or a concept, or being interpreted that way, and not being regarded as an objective attribute, intension, property, or quality, not as viewed via the interpretive frame of the scope.
+
2Conventions, Disjunctive Terms, Indexical Signs, Inductive Rules
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
2.1.  "man and horse and kangaroo and whale(intensional conjunction).
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
 
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
+
'''Nota Bene.''' In this particular choice of phrasing, Peirce is using the intensional "and", meaning that the compound term has the intensions that are shared by all of the component terms, in this way producing a term that bears the ''greatest common intension'' of the terms that are connected in it. This is formalized as the ''greatest lower bound'' in a lattice of intensions, dual to the union of sets or ''least upper bound'' in a lattice of extensions.
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
 
|                                                          |
+
It is perhaps more common today to use the extensional "or" in order to express the roughly equivalent compound concept:
|              q = Humanity                                |
+
 
|            /|\    ·                                      |
+
2.1.  "men or horses or kangaroos or whales"  (extensional disjunction).
|            / | \        ·                                |
 
|          / |  \              ·                          |
 
|          /  |  \                  ·                    |
 
|        ooooooooooo }}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}} s = Bartleby |
 
|          ·  ·  ·                        |              |
 
|                ·  ·  ·                    |              |
 
|                        · · ·              |              |
 
|                              ···          |              |
 
|                                      ·    |              |
 
|                                            i = 'Humanity' |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Factorization Of A Fiber Via Objects And Via Signs        |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
That should take care of the immediate potential for confusion.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>Yet there are combinations of words and combinations of conceptions which are not strictly speaking symbols.</p>
  
===Incidental Note 8===
+
<p>These are of two kinds of which I will give you instances.</p>
  
I see that I am using a few bits of language about factors and fibers that I have not mentioned in quite a while, and not only that but I am using it in ways that I learned at different times from different folks, and so I am using it slightly equivocally. So let me try to straighten that out before going on with the story of Bartleby, his preferentials, and the apothematic dimensionals of his human, all too human humanity.
+
<p>We have first cases like:  "man and horse and kangaroo and whale" ...</p>
  
Let's say that we have an ordinary function f : X -> Y.  If we pick out one y from the target or the codomain Y, then it either has x's from the source or the domain X that are assigned, or mapped, or sent to it by f or it doesn't.  Let's say it does.  Then here is the picture of what I will frequently call the "fiber (of f) at y":
+
<p>[This term] has no comprehension which is adequate to the limitation of the extension.</p>
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
<p>In fact, men, horses, kangaroos, and whales have no attributes in common which are not possessed by the entire class of mammals.</p>
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|        Source Domain        |        Target Codomain      |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|              x                                            |
 
|              x    ·                                      |
 
|              x    ·    ·                                |
 
|              x    ·    ·    ·                          |
 
|              x    ·    ·    ·    ·                    |
 
|              x    ·    ·    ·    ·    y              |
 
|              x    ·    ·    ·    ·                    |
 
|              x    ·    ·    ·                          |
 
|              x    ·    ·                                |
 
|              x    ·                                      |
 
|              x                                            |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Functional Fiber                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
Very often the reason that one is interested in these varieties of fibers under a given function is so that one can follow them "upstream" or "backward", functionally speaking, in other words, toward the "source" of the functional value under investigation.  That leads rather naturally to the other mathematical usage for the word "fiber" that I have in mind. Here are the definitions as I formulated them in my dissertation proposal:
+
<p>For this reason, this disjunctive term, "man and horse and kangaroo and whale", is of no use whatever.</p>
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
<p>For suppose it is the subject of a sentence;  suppose we know that men and horses and kangaroos and whales have some common character.</p>
|
 
<p>The "fiber" of a codomain element y in Y under a function f : X -> Y is the subset of the domain X that is mapped onto y, in short, it is f^(-1)(y) c X.</p>
 
  
<p>In other language that is often used, the fiber of y under f is called the "antecedent set", the "inverse image", the "level set", or the "pre-image" of y under f. All of these equivalent concepts are defined as follows:</p>
+
<p>Since they have no common character which does not belong to the whole class of mammals, it is plain that "mammals" may be substituted for this term.</p>
  
<p>Fiber of y under f  =  f^(-1)(y)  =  {x in X  :  f(x) = y}.</p>
+
<p>Suppose it is the predicate of a sentence, and that we know that something is either a man or a horse or a kangaroo or a whale;</p>
  
<p>In the special case where f is the indicator function f_Q of the set Q c X, the fiber of %1% under indicator function f_Q is just the set Q back again:</p>
+
<p>then, the person who has found out this, knows more about this thing than that it is a mammal;</p>
  
<p>Fiber of %1% under f_Q</p>
+
<p>he therefore knows which of these four it is for these four have nothing in common except what belongs to all other mammals.</p>
  
<p>=  (f_Q)^(-1)(%1%)</p>
+
<p>Hence in this case the particular one may be substituted for the disjunctive term.</p>
  
<p>=  {x in X  :  f_Q (x) = %1%}</p>
+
<p>A disjunctive term, then, — one which aggregates the extension of several symbols, — may always be replaced by a simple term.</p>
  
<p>=  Q.</p>
+
<p>C.S. Peirce, 'Chronological Edition', CE 1, 468.</p>
 +
|}
  
<p>In this specifically boolean setting, as in the more generally logical context, where "truth" under any name is especially valued, it is worth devoting a specialized notation to the "fiber of truth" in a proposition, to mark the set that it indicates with a particular ease and explicitness.  For this purpose, I introduce the use of "fiber bars" or "ground signs", written as "[| ... |]" around a sentence, or the sign of a proposition, and whose application is defined as follows:</p>
+
Let us first assemble a minimal syntactic domain ''S'' that is sufficient to begin discussing this example:
  
<p>If  f : X -> %B%,</p>
+
: ''S'' = {"m", "h", "k", "w", "S", "M", "P"}
  
<p>then  [| f |]  =  f^(-1)(%1%)  =  {x in X  : f(x) = %1%}.</p>
+
Here, I have introduced the abbreviations:
  
<p>The definition of a fiber, in either the general or the boolean case, is a purely nominal convenience for referring to the antecedent subset, the inverse image under a function, or the pre-image of a functional value.  The definition of an operator on propositions, signified by framing the signs of propositions with fiber bars or ground signs, remains a purely notational device, and yet the notion of a fiber in a logical context serves to raise an interesting point.  By way of illustration, it is legitimate to rewrite the above definition in the following form:</p>
+
: "m" = "man"
 +
: "h" = "horse"
 +
: "k" = "kangaroo"
 +
: "w" = "whale"
  
<p>If  f : X -> %B%,</p>
+
: "S" = "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"
 +
: "M" = "Mammal"
 +
: "P" = "Predicate shared by man, horse, kangaroo, whale"
  
<p>then  [| f |]  =  f^(-1)(%1%)  =  {x in X  :  f(x)}.</p>
+
Let's attempt to keep tabs on things by using angle brackets for the comprehension of a term, and square brackets for the extension of a term.
  
<p>The set-builder frame "{x in X  :  ... }" requires a sentence to fill in the blank, as with the sentence "f(x) = %1%" that serves to fill the frame in the initial definition of a logical fiber.  And what is a sentence but the expression of a proposition, in other words, the name of an indicator function?  As it happens, the sign "f(x)" and the sentence "f(x) = %1%" represent the very same value to this context, for all x in X, that is, they are equal in their truth or falsity to any reasonable interpreter of signs or sentences in this context, and so either one of them can be tendered for the other, in effect, exchanged for the other, within this frame.</p>
+
For brevity, let x = ["x"], in general.
  
<p>http://suo.ieee.org/email/msg07409.html</p>
+
Here is an initial picture of the situation, so far as I can see it:
<p>http://suo.ieee.org/email/msg07416.html</p>
 
|}
 
 
 
===Incidental Note 9===
 
 
 
Last time we looked at an ordinary function f : X -> Y, and we glommed onto a single fiber of f, considered in one of two ways: (1) a set of ordered pairs F c X x Y such that <x, y> in F if and only f(x) = y, or else (2) a subset of X, horrifically asciified as f^(-1)(y) c X.
 
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="10"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|       Source Domain        |       Target Codomain      |
+
|     Objective Framework    |   Interpretive Framework    |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
|              x                                            |
+
|              P <------------o------------ "P"            |
|             x    ·                                      |
+
|             = \                            |\            |
|             x    ·    ·                                |
+
|           =  \                          | \            |
|             x    ·    ·     ·                         |
+
|           =     \                         |  \          |
|             x    ·    ·    ·    ·                    |
+
|          =      \                        |  \          |
|             x    ·    ·    ·    ·    y              |
+
|        =        \                        |    \        |
|             x    ·    ·    ·    ·                    |
+
|       P          M <------o--------------|--- "M"      |
|             x    ·    ·     ·                         |
+
|         \        =                        |    /        |
|              x     ·     ·                                |
+
|         \      =                        |  /          |
|             x    ·                                      |
+
|           \     =                         |  /          |
|             x                                            |
+
|            \  =                          | /            |
 +
|            \ =                            |/            |
 +
|              S <------------o------------ "S"            |
 +
|            ** **                        ** **            |
 +
|          * *  * *                    * *  * *          |
 +
|        *  *     *  *                *  *     *  *        |
 +
|      *  *      *  *            *  *      *  *      |
 +
|    o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
 +
|    m    h        k    w        "m"  "h"      "k"  "w"  |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
|                                                          |
 +
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {"m", "h", "k", "w", "S", "M", "P"}      |
 +
|                                                          |
 +
| "m"  =  "man"                                            |
 +
| "h"  =  "horse"                                          |
 +
| "k"  =  "kangaroo"                                        |
 +
| "w"  =  "whale"                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 +
| "S"  =  "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"              |
 +
| "M"  =  "Mammal"                                          |
 +
| "P"  =  "Predicate shared by man, horse, kangaroo, whale" |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
| Functional Fiber                                          |
 
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
 +
 +
In effect, relative to the lattice of natural (non-phony) kinds, any property ''P'', predicated of ''S'', can be "lifted" to a mark of ''M''.
 +
 +
===Commentary Note 10===
  
Any function f : X -> Y, which is, after all, exactly the same as the relation f c X x Y, can be treated as an assortment of fibers of the first sort. So it is easy to grasp the elementary fact of category theory that any function whatsoever can be factored into an epic (surjective, "onto") and a monic (injective, "one to one") sequence of composed functions, as illustrated here for one fiber:
+
2.  Conventions, Disjunctive Terms, Indexical Signs, Inductive Rules (cont.)
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
o-------------------o-------------------o-------------------o
+
|
|  Source Domain  |  Medial Domain  |  Target Domain  |
+
<p>We come next to consider inductions.  In inferences of this kind we proceed as if upon the principle that as is a sample of a class so is the whole class.  The word ''class'' in this connection means nothing more than what is denoted by one term, — or in other words the sphere of a term.  Whatever characters belong to the whole sphere of a term constitute the content of that term.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of a specimen of the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  And what is a specimen?  It is something taken from a class or the sphere of a term, at random — that is, not upon any further principle, not selected from a part of that sphere;  in other words it is something taken from the sphere of a term and not taken as belonging to a narrower sphere.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of something taken as belonging to the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  But this principle is not axiomatic by any means.  Why then do we adopt it?</p>
o-------------------o---------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|        x                                                |
 
|        x  ·                                            |
 
|        x  ·  ·                                        |
 
|        x  ·  ·  ·                                    |
 
|        x  ·  ·  ·  ·                                |
 
|        x  ·  ·  ·  ·  m · · · · · · · · > y        |
 
|        x  ·  ·  ·  ·                                |
 
|         x  ·  ·  ·                                    |
 
|        x  ·  ·                                        |
 
|        x  ·                                            |
 
|        x                                                |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Functional Fiber Factors                                  |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
In sum, an arbitrary f : X -> Y can always be factored into a pair of functions of the types g : X -> M and h : M -> Y, where g is surjective, h is injective, and f = h o g, here using the "left-composition" convention according to which the composition h o g is defined by (h o g)(x) = h(g(x)).
+
<p>To explain this, we must remember that the process of induction is a process of adding to our knowledge;  it differs therein from deduction — which merely explicates what we know — and is on this very account called scientific inference.  Now deduction rests as we have seen upon the inverse proportionality of the extension and comprehension of every term;  and this principle makes it impossible apparently to proceed in the direction of ascent to universals.  But a little reflection will show that when our knowledge receives an addition this principle does not hold. &hellip;</p>
  
To finish off the topic of factoring functions for now, I will give the commutative diagram and the additional bit of explanation that I gave once before, to wit:
+
<p>The reason why this takes place is worthy of notice.  Every addition to the information which is incased in a term, results in making some term equivalent to that term.  &hellip;</p>
  
We began with the trusim from category theory, at least, the sorts of "concrete categories" of sets and functions that will be most salient in the minds of most everybody:  That an arbitrary arrow factors into a couple of pieces, an epic on which a monic ensues, 'Iliad' and 'Odyssey', if you will, and if you catch my drift, and whether you will or not, 'tis true.
+
<p>Thus, every addition to our information about a term is an addition to the number of equivalents which that term has.  Now, in whatever way a term gets to have a new equivalent, whether by an increase in our knowledge, or by a change in the things it denotes, this always results in an increase either of extension or comprehension without a corresponding decrease in the other quantity.</p>
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462–464).</p>
|                  f
+
|}
|              arbitrary
 
|        X o-------------->o Y
 
|           \            ^
 
|            \          /
 
|      g      \        /    h
 
|  surjective  \      /  injective
 
|    "epic"    \    /    "monic"
 
|                \  /
 
|                  v /
 
|                  o
 
|                  M
 
</pre></font>
 
  
Now, there's a catch here -- there's always a catch, the way I see it -- leastwise, once we begin to think so systematically as to be working inside any sort of category at all, instead of merely picking up on this or that isolated instance of an arbalistrary functional arrow, then this ostensibly trivial truism becomes contingent on the list of a "suitable transitional object" (STO), like M in our example, and of the "requisite intermedi-arrows" (RIA's), like g and h, explicitly listed within the formal category in question.  Otherwise, "you just cannot get there from here" is the only thing that answers to your desire for mediation.
+
2.1.  "man and horse and kangaroo and whale" (aggregarious animals).
  
===Incidental Note 10===
+
It seems to me now that my previous explanation of the use of "and" in this example was far too complicated and contrived.  So let's just say that the conjunction "and" is being used in its ''aggregational'' sense.
  
We have been contemplating a few of the more facile relationships among functions, their fibers, and their factorizations.  Just to be as clear about all this as we possibly can, let us look at one very simple but perfectly generic picture of the global situation.
+
I will also try an alternate style of picture for the ''lifting property'', by means of which, relative to the lattice of natural (non-ad-hoc) kinds, a property ''P'', naturally predicated of ''S'', can be ''elevated'' to apply to ''M''.
  
The next Figure illustrates a function f : X -> Y with this data:
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 
+
|
: X = {x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4, x_5}
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
: Y = {y_1, y_2, y_3, y_4, y_5, y_6}
+
|     Objective Framework    |   Interpretive Framework    |
 
 
: f = {(x_1, y_2), (x_2, y_2), (x_3, y_2), (x_4, y_5), (x_5, y_5)}
 
 
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|       Source Domain        |       Target Codomain      |
 
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
|         x_1 o--------------------------· o y_1          |
+
|             P <------------o------------ "P"            |
|                                         \               |
+
|              |\                            |\            |
|                                           \               |
+
|              | \                          | \            |
|         x_2 o-----------------------------o y_2         |
+
|              |  \                          | \          |
|                                           /              |
+
|             |  \                         |  \          |
|                                         /                |
+
|             |    \                        |    \         |
|         x_3 o--------------------------·  o y_3          |
+
|             |    M <------o--------------|--- "M"      |
 +
|              |    =                        |    /        |
 +
|              |  =                        |  /          |
 +
|              |  =                          |  /          |
 +
|              | =                          | /            |
 +
|              |=                            |/            |
 +
|              S <------------o------------ "S"            |
 +
|            ** **                        ** **            |
 +
|          * *  * *                    * *  * *         |
 +
|       *  *    *  *                *  *    *  *        |
 +
|      *  *      *  *            *  *      *  *      |
 +
|    o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
 +
|   m    h        k    w        "m"  "h"      "k"  "w"  |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 +
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {"m", "h", "k", "w", "S", "M", "P"}      |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
|         x_4 o--------------------------· o y_4          |
+
| "m" =  "man"                                            |
|                                          \                |
+
| "h"  =  "horse"                                           |
|                                          \              |
+
| "k"  =  "kangaroo"                                        |
|                                           o y_5          |
+
| "w"  =  "whale"                                           |
|                                          /              |
 
|                                          /                |
 
|          x_5 o--------------------------·  o y_6          |
 
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 +
| "S"  =  "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"              |
 +
| "M"  =  "Mammal"                                          |
 +
| "P"  =  "Predicate shared by man, horse, kangaroo, whale" |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
| Functional Fibers                                        |
 
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
 +
 +
I believe that we can now begin to see the linkage to inductive rules.  When a sample ''S'' is ''fairly'' or ''randomly'' drawn from the membership ''M'' of some population and when every member of ''S'' is observed to have the property ''P'', then it is naturally rational to expect that every member of ''M'' will also have the property ''P''.  This is the principle behind all of our more usual statistical generalizations, giving us the leverage that it takes to lift predicates from samples to a membership sampled.
 +
 +
Now, the aggregate that is designated by "man, horse, kangaroo, whale", even if it's not exactly a random sample from the class of mammals, is drawn by design from sufficiently many and sufficiently diverse strata within the class of mammals to be regarded as a quasi-random selection.  Thus, it affords us with a sufficient basis for likely generalizations.
  
Just by way of introducing a few bits of useful terminology, I take the liberty of expressing the following observations:
+
===Commentary Note 11===
 +
 
 +
At this point it will help to jump ahead a bit in time, and to take in the more systematic account of the same material from Peirce's "New List of Categories" (1867).
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
{|
+
I shall now show how the three conceptions of reference to a ground, reference to an object, and reference to an interpretant are the fundamental ones of at least one universal science, that of logic.  (Peirce 1867, CP 1.559).
| Dom(f) || = || Domain(f)  || = || X
 
|-
 
| Cod(f) || = || Codomain(f) || = || Y
 
|-
 
| Ran(f) || = || Range(f)    || = || {y_2, y_5}
 
|-
 
| Cor(f) || = || Corange(f) || = || X
 
|}
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Naturally, Dom(f) = Cor(f) for any relation f that happens to be a function, but I am introducing these terms as employed in a more general relational context.
+
We will have occasion to consider this paragraph in detail later, but for the present purpose let's hurry on down to the end of it.
  
The fibers of f are either one of these constructions:
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>In an argument, the premisses form a representation of the conclusion, because they indicate the interpretant of the argument, or representation representing it to represent its object.  The premisses may afford a likeness, index, or symbol of the conclusion.  In deductive argument, the conclusion is represented by the premisses as by a general sign under which it is contained.  In hypotheses, something ''like'' the conclusion is proved, that is, the premisses form a likeness of the conclusion.  Take, for example, the following argument:</p>
 +
 +
: [Abduction of a Case]
  
# Relational Fibers:<br />f & y_2 = {(x_1, y_2), (x_2, y_2), (x_3, y_2)}<br />f & y_5 = {(x_4, y_5), (x_5, y_5)}
+
: ''M'' is, for instance, ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>;
# Partitional Fibers:<br />f · y_2 = {x_1, x_2, x_3}<br />f · y_5 = {x_4, x_5}
+
 
 +
: ''S'' is ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>:
  
There are, of course, many different systems of notation and terminology for these things.
+
: Therefore, ''S'' is ''M''.
  
===Incidental Note 11===
+
<p>Here the first premiss amounts to this, that "''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>" is a likeness of ''M'', and thus the premisses are or represent a likeness of the conclusion.  That it is different with induction another example will show:</p>
  
From the cosmic urn of all possible functions we draw the unique random function f : X -> Y.
+
: [Induction of a Rule]
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are taken as samples of the collection ''M'';
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|        Source Domain        |        Target Codomain      |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|          x_1 o--------------------------·  o y_1          |
 
|                                          \                |
 
|                                          \              |
 
|          x_2 o-----------------------------o y_2          |
 
|                                          /               |
 
|                                          /               |
 
|          x_3 o--------------------------·  o y_3          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|          x_4 o--------------------------·  o y_4          |
 
|                                          \                |
 
|                                          \              |
 
|                                            o y_5          |
 
|                                          /              |
 
|                                          /                |
 
|          x_5 o--------------------------·  o y_6          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Functional Fibers                                        |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
Now we form the canonical decomposition or factorization of f into a surjective function followed by an injective function.
+
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are ''P'':
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
: Therefore, All ''M'' is ''P''.
o-------------------o-------------------o-------------------o
 
|  Source Domain  |  Middle Domain  |  Target Domain  |
 
o-------------------o---------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|          x_1 o-----------·                o y_1          |
 
|                          \                              |
 
|                            \ m_1                          |
 
|          x_2 o--------------o------------->o y_2          |
 
|                            /                              |
 
|                          /                              |
 
|          x_3 o-----------·                o y_3          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|          x_4 o-----------·                o y_4          |
 
|                          \                              |
 
|                            \ m_2                          |
 
|                            o------------->o y_5          |
 
|                            /                              |
 
|                          /                              |
 
|          x_5 o-----------·                o y_6          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Functional Factors                                        |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
Here we have the following data:
+
<p>Hence the first premiss amounts to saying that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.  Hence the premisses are an index of the conclusion.</p>
  
: f = h o g
+
<p>(Peirce 1867, CP 1.559).</p>
 +
|}
  
: f : X -> Y, arbitrary
+
1.  Abductive Inference and Iconic Signs
: g : X -> M, surjective
 
: h : M -> Y, injective
 
  
: X  =  {x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4, x_5}
+
Peirce's analysis of the patterns of abductive argument can be understood according to the following paraphrase:
: M  =  {m_1, m_2}
 
: Y  =  {y_1, y_2, y_3, y_4, y_5, y_6}
 
  
: f  =  {(x_1, y_2), (x_2, y_2), (x_3, y_2), (x_4, y_5), (x_5, y_5)}
+
* Abduction of a Case:
: g  =  {(x_1, m_1), (x_2, m_1), (x_3, m_1), (x_4, m_2), (x_5, m_2)}
 
: h  =  {(m_1, y_2), (m_2, y_5)}
 
  
I think that you can see from this sufficient bit that it lies in the very nature of a function for it factorizing to permit.
+
: Fact:  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>1</sub>,  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>2</sub>,  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>3</sub>,  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>4</sub>
 +
: Rule:  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>1</sub>,  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>2</sub>,  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>3</sub>,  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>4</sub>
 +
: -------------------------------------------------
 +
: Case:  ''S'' &rArr; ''M''
  
===Incidental Note 12===
+
: If ''X'' &rArr; each of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;,
  
I think that we have fairly well convinced ourselves — at least, I am reasonably sure that some of us have — that every function can be factored into an "onto" followed by a "one-to-one" mapping, as shown here:
+
: then we have the following equivalents:
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
: 1. ''X'' &rArr; the ''greatest lower bound'' (''glb'') of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;
o-------------------o-------------------o-------------------o
 
|  Source Domain  |  Middle Domain  |  Target Domain  |
 
o-------------------o---------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|          x_1 o-----------·                o y_1          |
 
|                          \                              |
 
|                            \ m_1                          |
 
|          x_2 o--------------o------------->o y_2          |
 
|                            /                              |
 
|                          /                              |
 
|          x_3 o-----------·                o y_3          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|          x_4 o-----------·                o y_4          |
 
|                          \                              |
 
|                            \ m_2                          |
 
|                            o------------->o y_5          |
 
|                            /                              |
 
|                          /                              |
 
|          x_5 o-----------·                o y_6          |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| Factured Fiber Trails                                    |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
So patent is the pending of Damocles' Razor on our modern incre-mentalities that we would scarcely dare to think of it this way without a little bit of prodding, but it is possible to treat this functional fractionation process as a case of transmuting a 2-adic relation f c X x Y into a 3-adic relation L c X x M x Y.
+
: 2. ''X'' &rArr; the logical conjunction ''A'' &and; ''B'' &and; ''C'' &and; ''D'' &and; &hellip;
  
In our present example we have the data:
+
: 3. ''X'' &rArr; ''Q'' = ''A'' &and; ''B'' &and; ''C'' &and; ''D'' &and; &hellip;
  
: f c X x Y
+
More succinctly, letting ''Q'' = ''P''<sub>1</sub> &and; ''P''<sub>2</sub> &and; ''P''<sub>3</sub> &and; ''P''<sub>4</sub>, the argument is summarized by the following scheme:
: X = {x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4, x_5}
 
: Y = {y_1, y_2, y_3, y_4, y_5, y_6}
 
  
: f = {(x_1, y_2), (x_2, y_2), (x_3, y_2), (x_4, y_5), (x_5, y_5)}
+
* Abduction of a Case:
  
and
+
: Fact:  ''S'' &rArr; ''Q''
 +
: Rule:  ''M'' &rArr; ''Q''
 +
: --------------
 +
: Case:  ''S'' &rArr; ''M''
  
: L c X x M x Y
+
In this piece of Abduction, it is the ''glb'' or the conjunction of the ostensible predicates that is the operative predicate of the argument, that is, it is the predicate that is common to both the Fact and the Rule of the inference.
  
: X = {x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4, x_5}
+
Finally, the reason why one can say that ''Q'' is an iconic sign of the object ''M'' is that ''Q'' can be taken to denote ''M'' by virtue of the qualities that they share, namely, ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, ''P''<sub>4</sub>.
  
: M = {m_1, m_2}
+
Notice that the iconic denotation is symmetric, at least in principle, that is, icons are icons of each other as objects, at least potentially, whether or not a particular interpretive agent is making use of their full iconicity during a particular phase of semeiosis.
  
: Y = {y_1, y_2, y_3, y_4, y_5, y_6}
+
The abductive situation is diagrammed in Figure 11.1.
  
: L = {(x_1, m_1, y_2), (x_2, m_1, y_2), (x_3, m_1, y_2), (x_4, m_2, y_5), (<x_5, m_2, y_5)}
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:60%"
 
 
===Incidental Note 13===
 
 
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
 
|
 
|
'''Comprehension.''' The sum of characteristics which connote a class notion symbolized by a general term. Also, the features common to a number of instances or objects. Thus, the ''connotation'' (''qv'') or ''intension'' (''qv'') of a concept.  (Otto F. Kraushaar, in D.D. Runes (ed.) ''Dictionary of Philosophy'', 1962).
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
|}
+
o-------------------------------------------------o
 
+
|                                                |
I had the impression that Peirce's usage was conforming to some standard tradition, Scholastic or Kantian or both, but have not taken the time to trace it -- I imagine that somebody hereabouts would probably have it on the tip of their tongue, anyways. My affliction with OSSD (obsessive syntactic symmetry disorder) made it difficult for me to switch from the equal temperaments of extension/intension, but I have the sense that peirce is making a technical distinction between "an intension", as being any one property of an object of a concept, and "the comprehension", as being the collection or the conjunction of "all" of the properties of the object that are relevant to some context of discussion.  But that is just my unchecked sense of what he's saying, and I'm still just guessing.  So I went with Kraushaar, as he seems to cover the Kantian line.  And there's always a chance that Runes is derivative of Peirce, via the century dictionary and other sources like that.  Detective work needed here.
+
|          P_1  P_2        P_3  P_4          |
 
+
|            o    o          o    o            |
==Reflective Note==
+
|              *    *        *    *              |
 
+
|                *  *      *  *                |
What Peirce achieved in this line of inquiry was to develop a theory of information out of purely logical considerationsThe majority of the flashes of insight that he propagates in 1865-1866 will not be seen again until the first shots of our own information and computing revolutions.  These are nothing less than intimations of the "capacity limitations" of signals, symbols, and their users, due in part to the physical nature of actual sign tokens, and in part to the fact that we fallible and mortal finite information creatures are forever out of existential necessity forced to learn and to think under conditions of imperfect information, and thus are we ever bound to "reason under uncertainty", with all of the usual afflictions of biased opinion, partial knowledge, and bounded rationality.  Strangely enough, it is the very improvements in the speed and capacity of our computing and information media since the early days of these revolutions that has brought on a reactionary tendency to forget the basic principles on which the whole republic of information is founded.  And thus it happens that Peirce's way of viewing information is not just "enlightened for his time", as people say, but enlightened also in comparison to ours.
+
|                  * *    * *                  |
 
+
|                    * *  * *                    |
==Commentary Notes==
+
|                      ** **                      |
 +
|                      Q o                        |
 +
|                        |\                      |
 +
|                        | \                      |
 +
|                        | \                    |
 +
|                        |  \                    |
 +
|                        |    \                  |
 +
|                        |    o M                |
 +
|                       |    /                  |
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
|                        | /                     |
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
|                        |/                      |
 +
|                      S o                        |
 +
|                                                |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Figure 1Abduction of the Case S => M        |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
===Commentary Note 1===
+
In a diagram like this, even if one does not bother to show all of the implicational or the subject-predicate relationships by means of explicit lines, then one may still assume the ''[[transitive closure]]'' of the relations that are actually shown, along with any that are noted in the text that accompanies it.
  
Peirce's incipient theory of information, that he appears to have developed by sheer force of logical insight from his early understanding of signs and scientific inquiry, is not an easy subject to grasp in its developing stateAn attempt to follow his reasoning step by step might well begin with this:
+
2Inductive Inference and Indexic Signs
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
Peirce's analysis of the patterns of inductive argument can be understood according to the following paraphrase:
|
 
<p>Let us now return to the information.</p>
 
  
<p>The information of a term is the measure of its superfluous comprehension.</p>
+
* Induction of a Rule:
|}
 
  
Today we would say that information has to do with constraint, law, redundancy. I think that Peirce is talking about more or less the same thing under the theme of ''superfluous comprehension'', where the comprehension of a term or expression is the collection of properties, also known as ''intensions'', that it implies about the things to which it applies.
+
: Case:  ''S''<sub>1</sub> &rArr; ''M'', ''S''<sub>2</sub> &rArr; ''M'',  ''S''<sub>3</sub> &rArr; ''M'', ''S''<sub>4</sub> &rArr; ''M''
 +
: Fact:  ''S''<sub>1</sub> &rArr; ''P'',  ''S''<sub>2</sub> &rArr; ''P'', ''S''<sub>3</sub> &rArr; ''P'', ''S''<sub>4</sub> &rArr; ''P''
 +
: -------------------------------------------------
 +
: Rule:  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''
  
===Commentary Note 2===
+
: If  ''X''  <= each of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;,
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
: then we have the following equivalents:
|
 
<p>For instance, you and I are men because we possess those attributes — having two legs, being rational, &c. — which make up the comprehension of ''man''.  Every addition to the comprehension of a term lessens its extension up to a certain point, after that further additions increase the information instead.</p>
 
  
<p>Thus, let us commence with the term ''colour'';  add to the comprehension of this term, that of ''red''. ''Red colour'' has considerably less extension than ''colour'';  add to this the comprehension of ''dark''''dark red colour'' has still less [extension].  Add to this the comprehension of ''non-blue'' ''non-blue dark red colour'' has the same extension as ''dark red colour'', so that the ''non-blue'' here performs a work of supererogation; it tells us that no ''dark red colour'' is blue, but does none of the proper business of connotation, that of diminishing the extension at all.</p>
+
: 1. ''X'' <= the ''least upper bound'' (''lub'') of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;
|}
 
  
When we set about comprehending the comprehension of a sign, say, a term or expression, we run into a very troublesome issue as to how many intensions (predicates, properties, qualities) an object of that sign has.  For how do we quantify the number of qualities a thing has?  Without some more or less artificial strait imposed on the collection of qualities, the number appears without limit.
+
: 2. ''X'' <= the logical disjunction ''A'' &or; ''B'' &or; ''C'' &or; ''D'' &or; &hellip;
  
Let's pass this by, as Peirce does, for now, and imagine that we have fixed on some way of speaking sensibly about ''the'' comprehension of a sign in a particular set of signs, the collection of which we may use as a language or a medium.
+
: 3. ''X'' <= ''L'' = ''A'' &or; ''B'' &or; ''C'' &or; ''D'' &or; &hellip;
  
Then we can begin to talk about the amount of redundancy, the superfluidity of comprehension, if you will, as Peirce does, that belongs to a given sign, and thus to its object.
+
More succinctly, letting ''L'' = ''P''<sub>1</sub> &or; ''P''<sub>2</sub> &or; ''P''<sub>3</sub> &or; ''P''<sub>4</sub>, the argument is summarized by the following scheme:
  
===Commentary Note 3===
+
* Induction of a Rule:
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
: Case:  ''L'' &rArr; ''M''
|
+
: Fact:  ''L'' &rArr; ''P''
Thus information measures the superfluous comprehension. And, hence, whenever we make a symbol to express any thing or any attribute we cannot make it so empty that it shall have no superfluous comprehension.  I am going, next, to show that inference is symbolization and that the puzzle of the validity of scientific inference lies merely in this superfluous comprehension and is therefore entirely removed by a consideration of the laws of ''information''.
+
: --------------
|}
+
: Rule: ''M'' &rArr; ''P''
  
In a sense of primal innocence, logical laws bind the vacuum state of any medium that is capable of bearing, delivering, nurturing, and preserving signal meanings.  In other words, when we use symbols, not simple signs, in a channel, language, or medium that is constrained by logical laws, these laws do more than strain, they also exact the generation of symbols upon symbols to fill the requisite logical forms, and so there will always be lots more ways than one to say any given thing you might choose to say.
+
In this bit of Induction, it is the ''lub'' or the disjunction of the ostensible subjects that is the operative subject of the argument, to wit, the subject that is common to both the Case and the Fact of the inference.
  
===Commentary Note 4===
+
Finally, the reason why one can say that ''L'' is an indexical sign of the object ''M'' is that ''L'' can be taken to denote ''M'' by virtue of the instances that they share, namely, ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, ''S''<sub>4</sub>.
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
Notice that the indexical denotation is symmetric, at least in principle, that is, indices are indices of each other as objects, at least potentially, whether or not a particular interpretive agent is making use of their full indiciality during a particular phase of semeiosis.
|
 
<p>For this purpose, I must call your attention to the differences there are in the manner in which different representations stand for their objects.</p>
 
  
<p>In the first place there are likenesses or copies — such as ''statues'', ''pictures'', ''emblems'', ''hieroglyphics'', and the like.  Such representations stand for their objects only so far as they have an actual resemblance to them — that is agree with them in some characters. The peculiarity of such representations is that they do not determine their objects — they stand for anything more or less;  for they stand for whatever they resemble and they resemble everything more or less.</p>
+
The inductive situation is diagrammed in Figure 11.2.
  
<p>The second kind of representations are such as are set up by a convention of men or a decree of God. Such are ''tallies'', ''proper names'', &c. The peculiarity of these ''conventional signs'' is that they represent no character of their objects. Likenesses denote nothing in particular; ''conventional signs'' connote nothing in particular.</p>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:60%"
 
+
|
<p>The third and last kind of representations are ''symbols'' or general representations.  They connote attributes and so connote them as to determine what they denote.  To this class belong all ''words'' and all ''conceptions''.  Most combinations of words are also symbols.  A proposition, an argument, even a whole book may be, and should be, a single symbol.</p>
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
|}
+
o-------------------------------------------------o
 
+
|                                                |
In order to speak of the meandering channel, the abdundancy of language, the superfluidity of media, the play in the wheel of symbolism, then, it is necessary to classify the different kinds of signs, the varied ways that signs up to and including symbols, namely, those that are interpretive by dint of their very essence, can be interpreted as being referential to their objects.
+
|                      P o                        |
 +
|                        |\                      |
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
|                        | \                    |
 +
|                        |                        |
 +
|                        |    \                  |
 +
|                        |    o M                |
 +
|                        |    /                  |
 +
|                        |  /                    |
 +
|                        | /                    |
 +
|                        | /                      |
 +
|                        |/                      |
 +
|                      L o                        |
 +
|                      ** **                      |
 +
|                    * *  * *                    |
 +
|                  * *    * *                  |
 +
|                *  *      *  *                |
 +
|              *    *        *    *              |
 +
|            o    o          o    o            |
 +
|          S_1  S_2        S_3  S_4          |
 +
|                                                |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Figure 2. Induction of the Rule M => P        |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
On running through this familiar yet ever strange refrain for another time, I see that I have scarcely begun to trace the sinews of the linkages among the three types of signs, "the differences there are in the manner in which different representations stand for their objects", the matter of extension and comprehension, and the whole life-cycle of inquiry that engages me most.
+
===Commentary Note 12===
  
===Commentary Note 5===
+
Let's redraw the ''New List'' pictures of Abduction and Induction in a way that is a little less cluttered, availing ourselves of the fact that logical implications or lattice subsumptions obey a transitive law to leave unmarked what is thereby understood.
  
Signs, inquiry, and informationLet's focus on that for a while.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:60%"
 
+
|
To put Peirce's examples more in line with the order of his three categories, let us renumber them in the following way:
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
+
o-------------------------------------------------o
{| cellpadding=4
+
|                                                |
|-
+
|                P_1  ...   P_k                |
| &nbsp; || 1.   || The conjunctive term "spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit".
+
|                  o    o    o                  |
|-
+
|                  \    |    /                  |
| &nbsp; || 2.1. || The disjunctive term "man or horse or kangaroo or whale".
+
|                    \  |  /                    |
|-
+
|                    \  | /                    |
| &nbsp; || 2.2. || The disjunctive term "neat or swine or sheep or deer".
+
|                      \ | /                      |
 +
|                      \|/                      |
 +
|                      Q o                        |
 +
|                       |\                      |
 +
|                       | \                      |
 +
|                       |  \                    |
 +
|                       \                    |
 +
|                        |    \                  |
 +
|                        |    o M                |
 +
|                       |    ^                  |
 +
|                       |  /                    |
 +
|                       |  /                    |
 +
|                       | /                      |
 +
|                       |/                      |
 +
|                     S o                        |
 +
|                                                 |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Icon Q of Object M, Abduction of Case "S is M" |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
</pre></font>
 
|}
 
|}
  
Peirce suggests an analogy or a parallelism between the corresponding elements of the following triples:
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:60%"
 
+
|
{| cellpadding=4
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
|-
+
o-------------------------------------------------o
| &nbsp; || 1. || Conjunctive Term || : || Iconical Sign || : || Abductive Case
+
|                                                |
|-
+
|                     P o                        |
| &nbsp; || 2. || Disjunctive Term || : || Indicial Sign || : || Inductive Rule
+
|                        |^                      |
|}
+
|                        | \                      |
 
+
|                        |  \                    |
Here is an overview of the two patterns of reasoning, along with the first steps of an analysis in sign-theoretic terms:
+
|                        |  \                    |
 
+
|                        |    \                  |
1.  Conjunctive term "spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit".
+
|                        |    o M                |
 
+
|                        |    /                  |
 +
|                       |  /                    |
 +
|                       |  /                    |
 +
|                       | /                      |
 +
|                       |/                      |
 +
|                     L o                        |
 +
|                       /|\                      |
 +
|                     / | \                      |
 +
|                     /  |  \                    |
 +
|                   /  |   \                    |
 +
|                   /    |   \                  |
 +
|                 o    o    o                  |
 +
|                 S_1  ...  S_k                |
 +
|                                                 |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Index L of Object M, Induction of Rule "M is P" |
 +
o-------------------------------------------------o
 +
</pre></font>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
The main problem that I have with these pictures in their present form is that they do not sufficiently underscore the distinction in roles between signs and objects, and thus we may find it a bit jarring that the middle term of a syllogistic figure is described as an ''object'' of iconic and indexic signs.
 +
 
 +
I will try to address that issue when I return to Peirce's earlier lectures.
 +
 
 +
===Commentary Note 13===
 +
 
 +
In the process of rationalizing Peirce's account of induction to myself I find that I have now lost sight of the indexical sign relationships, so let me go back to the drawing board one more time to see if I can get the indexical and the inductive aspects of the situation back into the very same picture.  Here is how we left off last time:
 +
 
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
Line 1,964: Line 1,936:
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
|                               t_1  t_2  ...  t_5  t_6    |
+
|             P <------------------------- "P"            |
|                                 o    o        o    o    |
+
|             |\                            |\            |
|                                   *  *      *  *      |
+
|             | \                          | \            |
|                                     * *    * *        |
+
|             | \                          | \          |
|                                       * *   * *          |
+
|             |  \                        |   \          |
|                                         ** **            |
+
|             |   \                        |   \        |
|                                         z o              |
+
|              |     M <---------------------|--- "M"       |
|                                           |\             |
+
|             |   =                       |    /        |
|                                           | \  Rule       |
+
|             |  =                        /          |
|                                           | \ y=>z      |
+
|             |  =                          | /          |
|                                           \          |
+
|             | =                           | /            |
|                                     Fact |   \          |
+
|             |=                            |/             |
|                                     x=>z |     o y      |
+
|             S <------------------------- "S"            |
|                                           |   /         |
+
|            ** **                        ** **            |
|                                           /          |
+
|          * *   * *                    * *  * *          |
|                                           | / Case      |
+
|       *  *    *  *                *  *    * *        |
|                                           | /  x=>y       |
+
|     *  *      *  *            *  *       *  *      |
|                                           |/              |
+
|   o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
|                                         x o              |
+
|   m    h        k    w        "m"  "h"      "k"  "w"  |
 +
|   S_1  S_2      S_3  S_4    "S_1"  "S_2"    "S_3" "S_4" |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
| Conjunctive Predicate z, Abduction to the Case x => y    |
+
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {t_1, t_2, t_3, t_4, t_5, t_6, x, y, z}   |
+
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {"m", "h", "k", "w", "S", "M", "P"}       |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
| t_1  =  "spherical"                                       |
+
| "m"  =  "man"                                             |
| t_2 =  "bright"                                         |
+
| "h"  =  "horse"                                          |
| t_3  =  "fragrant"                                       |
+
| "k" =  "kangaroo"                                        |
| t_4 =  "juicy"                                          |
+
| "w" =  "whale"                                          |
| t_5 =  "tropical"                                        |
 
| t_6 =  "fruit"                                          |
 
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
| x    =  "subject"                                         |
+
| "S"  =  "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"               |
| y    =  "orange"                                          |
+
| "M"  =  "Mammal"                                          |
| z    =  "spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit" |
+
| "P"  =  "Predicate shared by man, horse, kangaroo, whale" |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
 +
 +
In this double-entry account we are more careful to distinguish the signs that belong to the ''interpretive framework'' (IF) from the objects that belong to the ''objective framework'' (OF).  One benefit of this scheme is that it immediately resolves many of the conceptual puzzles that arise from confusing the roles of objects and the roles of signs in the relevant sign relation.
 +
 +
For example, we observe the distinction between the objects ''S'', ''M'', ''P'' and the signs "''S''", "''M''", "''P''".  The objects may be regarded as extensive classes or as intensive properties, as the context demands.  The signs may be regarded as sentences or as terms, in accord with the application and the ends in view.
 +
 +
It is as if we collected a stratified sample ''S'' of the disjoint type "man, horse, kangaroo, whale" from the class ''M'' of mammals, and observed the property ''P'' to hold true of each of them.  Now we know that this could be a statistical fluke, in other words, that ''S'' is just an arbitrary subset of the relevant universe of discourse, and that the very next ''M'' you pick from outside of ''S'' might not have the property ''P''.  But that is not very likely if the sample was ''fairly'' or ''randomly'' drawn.  So the objective domain is not a lattice like the power set of the universe but something more constrained, of a kind that makes induction and learning possible, a lattice of ''natural kinds'', you might say.  In the natural kinds lattice, then, the ''lub'' of ''S'' is close to ''M''.
 +
 +
Now that I have this much of the picture assembled in one frame, it occurs to me that I might be confusing myself about what are the sign relations of actual interest in this situation.  After all, samples and signs are closely related, as evidenced by the etymological connection between them that goes back at least as far as Hippocrates.
 +
 +
I need not mention any further the more obvious sign relations that we use just to talk about the objects in the example, for the signs and the objects in these relations of denotation are organized according to their roles in the diptych of objective and interpretive frames.  But there are, outside the expressly designated designations, the ways that samples of species tend to be taken as signs of their genera, and these sign relations are discovered internal to the previously marked object domain.
 +
 +
Let us look to Peirce's ''New List'' of the next year for guidance:
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>A similar line of thought may be gone through in reference to hypothesis. In this case we must start with the consideration of the term:</p>
+
<p>In an argument, the premisses form a representation of the conclusion, because they indicate the interpretant of the argument, or representation representing it to represent its object.   The premisses may afford a likeness, index, or symbol of the conclusion.  &hellip;</p>
 +
 
 +
: [Induction of a Rule, where the premisses are an index of the conclusion.]
  
<center>"spherical, bright, fragrant, juicy, tropical fruit".</center>
+
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are taken as samples of the collection ''M'';
  
<p>Such a term, formed by the sum of the comprehensions of several terms, is called a conjunctive term.  A conjunctive term has no extension adequate to its comprehension.  Thus the only spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit we know is the orange and that has many other characters besides these.  Hence, such a term is of no use whatever.  If it occurs in the predicate and something is said to be a spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit, since there is nothing which is all this which is not an orange, we may say that this is an orange at once.  On the other hand, if the conjunctive term is subject and we know that every spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit necessarily has certain properties, it must be that we know more than that and can simplify the subject.  Thus a conjunctive term may always be replaced by a simple one.  So if we find that light is capable of producing certain phenomena which could only be enumerated by a long conjunction of terms, we may be sure that this compound predicate may be replaced by a simple one.  And if only one simple one is known in which the conjunctive term is contained, this must be provisionally adopted.  (Peirce, CE 1, 470).</p>
+
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are ''P'':
|}
 
  
2.  Disjunctive term "neat or swine or sheep or deer".
+
: Therefore, All ''M'' is ''P''.
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
<p>Hence the first premiss amounts to saying that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.  Hence the premisses are an index of the conclusion.  (Peirce 1867, CP 1.559).</p>
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
There we see an abstract example with the same logical structure and almost precisely the same labeling.  It is a premiss of this argument that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.  But we are left wondering if he means the objective class ''M'' or the sign "''M''".  If we take the quotation marks of "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, ''S''<sub>4</sub>" as giving the disjunctive term equal to "''S''", then we have the next picture:
 +
 
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 +
|
 +
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
|                                         w o              |
+
|             P <------------------------- "P"            |
|                                           |\             |
+
|             |\                           |\            |
|                                           | \ Rule      |
+
|             | \                          | \           |
|                                           |  \ v=>w      |
+
|             |  \                         |  \          |
|                                           |  \           |
+
|             |  \                        |  \         |
|                                     Fact |    \         |
+
|             |    \                        |    \         |
|                                     u=>w |    o v       |
+
|             |    M <---------------------|--- "M"       |
|                                           |    /         |
+
|             |    = $                      |    / %      |
|                                           |  /           |
+
|             |  =                        |  /         |
|                                           |  / Case      |
+
|             |  =                          |  /           |
|                                           | / u=>v      |
+
|             | =    $                    | /     %      |
|                                           |/             |
+
|             |=                            |/             |
|                                         u o              |
+
|             S <------------------------- "S"            |
|                                         ** **             |
+
|           ** **     $                $ ** *%      %    |
|                                       * *  * *           |
+
|         * *  * *                 $   * *   * %          |
|                                     *  *    *  *         |
+
|       *  *    *  *           $     *  *     *  %        |
|                                   *  *      *  *      |
+
|     *  *      *  * $  $       *  *      *  % %    |
|                                 o    o        o    o     |
+
|   o    o        o    o         o    o        o    o    |
|                               s_1 s_2       s_3 s_4    |
+
|    m    h        k    w      "m"  "h"      "k"  "w"  |
 +
|   S_1 S_2       S_3 S_4    "S_1" "S_2"    "S_3" "S_4" |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
| Disjunctive Subject u, Induction to the Rule v => w      |
+
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"       |
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {s_1, s_2, s_3, s_4, u, v, w}            |
 
|                                                          |
 
| s_1  =  "neat"                                           |
 
| s_2  = "swine"                                          |
 
| s_3  =  "sheep"                                          |
 
| s_4  =  "deer"                                            |
 
|                                                          |
 
| u    =  "neat or swine or sheep or deer"                  |
 
| v    =  "cloven-hoofed"                                  |
 
| w    =  "herbivorous"                                    |
 
|                                                          |
 
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
So we have two readings of what Peirce is saying:
|
+
 
Hence if we find out that neat are herbivorous, swine are herbivorous, sheep are herbivorous, and deer are herbivorous;  we may be sure that there is some class of animals which covers all these, all the members of which are herbivorousNow a disjunctive term — such as "neat swine sheep and deer", or "man, horse, kangaroo, and whale" is not a true symbol. It does not denote what it does in consequence of its connotation, as a symbol does;  on the contrary, no part of its connotation goes at all to determine what it denotes — it is in that respect a mere accident if it denote anything.  Its ''sphere'' is determined by the concurrence of the four members, man, horse, kangaroo, and whale, or neat swine sheep and deer as the case may be. Peirce, CE 1, 468-469).
+
# The interpretation where "''S''" is an index of ''M'' by virtue of "''S''" being a property of each ''S''<sub>''j''</sub>, literally a generic sign of each of them, and by virtue of each ''S''<sub>''j''</sub> being an instance of ''M''.  The "''S''" to ''S''<sub>4</sub> to ''M'' linkage is painted $ $ $.
|}
+
# The interpretation where "''S''" is an index of "''M''" by virtue of "''S''" being a property of each "''S''<sub>''j''</sub>", literally an implicit sign of each of them, and by dint of each "''S''<sub>''j''</sub>" being an instance of "''M''"The "''S''" to "''S''<sub>4</sub>" to "''M''" link is drawn as % % %.
 +
 
 +
On third thought, there is still the possibility of a sense in which ''S'' is literally an index of ''M'', that is, we might regard a fair sample from ''S'' as nothing less than a representative sample from ''M''.
  
===Commentary Note 6===
+
===Commentary Note 14===
  
Before we return to Peirce's description of a near duality between icons and indices, involving a reciprocal symmetry between intensions and extensions of concepts that becomes perturbed to the breaking and yet the growing point by the receipt of a fresh bit of information, I think that it may help to recall a few pieces of technical terminology that Peirce introduced into this discussion.
+
With the clarity afforded by a reflective interval, my third thought, the relatively ultimate, more perfect interpretant of the intervening struggle toward that final, hopefully neither dying nor raging light, begins to look ever more like the fitting icon of my first impression.
  
'''Passage 1'''
+
I was trying to understand the things that Peirce said and wrote about the conventional, disjunctive, indexical, inductive complex of notions in the period 1865&ndash;1867.  And I was focused for the moment on this bit:
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>It is important to distinguish between the two functions of a word:  1st to denote something — to stand for something, and 2nd to mean something — or as Mr. Mill phrases it to ''connote'' something.</p>
+
<p>In an argument, the premisses form a representation of the conclusion, because they indicate the interpretant of the argument, or representation representing it to represent its object.   The premisses may afford a likeness, index, or symbol of the conclusion.  &hellip;</p>
  
<p>What it denotes is called its ''Sphere''.  What it connotes is called its ''Content''.  Thus the ''sphere'' of the word ''man'' is for me every man I know;  and for each of you it is every man you know.  The ''content'' of ''man'' is all that we know of all men, as being two-legged, having souls, having language, &c., &c.  It is plain that both the ''sphere'' and the ''content'' admit of more and less. &hellip;</p>
+
: [Induction of a Rule, where the premisses are an index of the conclusion.]
  
<p>Now the sphere considered as a quantity is called the Extension;  and the content considered as quantity is called the Comprehension.  Extension and Comprehension are also termed Breadth and Depth.  So that a wider term is one which has a greater extension; a narrower one is one which has a less extension.  A higher term is one which has a less Comprehension and a lower one has more.</p>
+
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are taken as samples of the collection ''M'';
  
<p>The narrower term is said to be contained under the wider one;  and the higher term to be contained in the lower one.</p>
+
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are ''P'':
  
<p>We have then:</p>
+
: Therefore, All ''M'' is ''P''.
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
<p>Hence the first premiss amounts to saying that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.  Hence the premisses are an index of the conclusion.  (Peirce 1867, CP 1.559).</p>
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                            |                            |
 
|  What is 'denoted'         |  What is 'connoted'         |
 
|                            |                            |
 
|  Sphere                    |  Content                    |
 
|                            |                            |
 
|  Extension                  |  Comprehension              |
 
|                            |                            |
 
|          ( wider          |        ( lower            |
 
|  Breadth  <                 |  Depth  <                   |
 
|          ( narrower        |        ( higher            |
 
|                            |                            |
 
|  What is contained 'under' |  What is contained 'in'     |
 
|                            |                            |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
 
 
<p>The principle of explicatory or deductive reasoning then is that:</p>
 
 
 
<p>Every part of a word's Content belongs to every part of its Sphere,</p>
 
 
 
<p>or:</p>
 
 
 
<p>Whatever is contained ''in'' a word belongs to whatever is contained under it.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Now this maxim would not be true if the Extension and Comprehension were directly proportional to one another;  this is to say if the Greater the one the greater the other.  For in that case, though the whole Content would belong to the whole Sphere;  yet only a particular part of it would belong to a part of that Sphere and not every part to every part.  On the other hand if the Comprehension and Extension were not in some way proportional to one another, that is if terms of different spheres could have the same content or terms of the same content different spheres;  then there would be no such fact as a content's ''belonging'' to a sphere and hence again the maxim would fail.  For the maxim to be true, then, it is absolutely necessary that the comprehension and extension should be inversely proportional to one another.  That is that the greater the sphere, the less the content.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Now this evidently true.  If we take the term ''man'' and increase its ''comprehension'' by the addition of ''black'', we have ''black man'' and this has less ''extension'' than ''man''.  So if we take ''black man'' and add ''non-black man'' to its sphere, we have ''man'' again, and so have decreased the comprehensionSo that whenever the extension is increased the comprehension is diminished and ''vice versa''.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 459–460).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
'''Passage 2'''
+
I've gotten as far as sketching this picture of the possible readings:
  
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 
|
 
|
<p>The highest terms are therefore broadest and the lowest terms the narrowest.  We can take a term so broad that it contains all other spheres under it.  Then it will have no content whatever.  There is but one such term — with its synonyms — it is ''Being''.  We can also take a term so low that it contains all other content within it.  Then it will have no sphere whatever.  There is but one such term — it is ''Nothing''.</p>
 
 
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
o------------------------o------------------------o
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                       |                       |
+
|     Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
Being                Nothing              |
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                        |                       |
+
|                                                          |
All breadth           | All depth             |
+
|              P <------------------------- "P"            |
|                       |                       |
+
|              |\                            |\            |
No depth              No breadth            |
+
|              | \                          | \            |
|                       |                       |
+
|              \                          \          |
o------------------------o------------------------o
+
|             |  \                        |  \          |
 +
|              |    \                       |   \        |
 +
|              |    M <---------------------|--- "M"      |
 +
|              |    = *                      |    / %      |
 +
|              |  =                        |  /          |
 +
|              =                          |  /           |
 +
|              | =    *                    | /    %      |
 +
|              |=                            |/            |
 +
|              S <------------------------- "S"             |
 +
|           ** **      *                $ ** *%      %    |
 +
|         * *  * *                $  * *  * %          |
 +
|       * *    *  *          $    *  *    *  %        |
 +
|      *  *      *  * *  $      *  *      *  % %    |
 +
|    o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
 +
|   m    h        k    w      "m"  "h"      "k"  "w" |
 +
|   S_1  S_2      S_3  S_4    "S_1" "S_2"    "S_3" "S_4" |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
<p>We can conceive of terms so narrow that they are next to nothing, that is have an absolutely individual sphere.  Such terms would be innumerable in number.  We can also conceive of terms so high that they are next to ''being'', that is have an entirely simple content.  Such terms would also be innumerable.</p>
+
In order of increasing ''objectivity'', here are three alternatives:
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
# The interpretation where "''S''" is an index of "''M''" by virtue of "''S''" being a property of each "''S''<sub>''j''</sub>", literally an implicit sign of each of them, and by dint of each "''S''<sub>''j''</sub>" being an instance of "''M''".  The "''S''" to "''S''<sub>4</sub>" to "''M''" link is drawn [%&nbsp;%&nbsp;%&nbsp;%].
o------------------------o------------------------o
+
# The interpretation where "''S''" is an index of ''M'' by virtue of "''S''" being a property of each ''S''<sub>''j''</sub>, literally a generic sign of each of them, and by virtue of each ''S''<sub>''j''</sub> being an instance of ''M''. The "''S''" to ''S''<sub>4</sub> to ''M'' link is a 2-tone [$&nbsp;$&nbsp;*&nbsp;*].
|                        |                        |
+
# The interpretation where ''S'' is an index of ''M'' by virtue of ''S'' being a property of each ''S''<sub>''j''</sub>, literally a supersample of each of them, and by virtue of each ''S''<sub>''j''</sub> being an instance of ''M''.  The ''S'' to ''S''<sub>4</sub> to ''M'' link is shown as [*&nbsp;*&nbsp;*&nbsp;*].
| Simple terms          |  Individual terms      |
 
|                        |                        |
 
o------------------------o------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
<p>But such terms though conceivable in one sense — that is intelligible in their conditions — are yet impossible.  You never can narrow down to an individual.  Do you say Daniel Webster is an individual?  He is so in common parlance, but in logical strictness he is not.  We think of certain images in our memory — a platform and a noble form uttering convincing and patriotic words — a statue — certain printed matter — and we say that which that speaker and the man whom that statue was taken for and the writer of this speech — that which these are in common is Daniel WebsterThus, even the proper name of a man is a general term or the name of a class, for it names a class of sensations and thoughts.  The true individual term the absolutely singular ''this'' & ''that'' cannot be reached.  Whatever has comprehension must be general.</p>
+
Perhaps it is the nature of the sign situation that all three interpretations will persevere and keep some measure of meritAt the moment I am leaning toward the third interpretation as it manifests the possibility of a higher grade of objectivity.
  
<p>In like manner, it is impossible to find any simple term.  This is obvious from this consideration.  If there is any simple term, simple terms are innumerable for in that case all attributes which are not simple are made up of simple attributes.  Now none of these attributes can be affirmed or denied universally of whatever has any one.  For let ''A'' be one simple term and ''B'' be another.  Now suppose we can say All ''A'' is ''B'';  then ''B'' is contained in ''A''.  If, therefore, ''A'' contains anything but ''B'' it is a compound term, but ''A'' is different from ''B'', and is simple;  hence it cannot be that All ''A'' is ''B''.  Suppose No ''A'' is ''B'', then not-''B'' is contained in ''A'';  if therefore ''A'' contains anything besides not-''B'' it is not a simple term;  but if it is the same as not-''B'', it is not a simple term but is a term relative to ''B''.  Now it is a simple term and therefore Some ''A'' is ''B''.  Hence if we take any two simple terms and call one ''A'' and the other ''B'' we have:</p>
+
===Commentary Note 15===
  
<p><center>Some ''A'' is ''B''</center>
+
I am going to stick with the Index-Induction side of the problem until I feel like I understand what's going on with this linkage between the faces of the sign relation and the phases of inquiry.
and
 
<center>Some ''A'' is not ''B''</center></p>
 
  
<p>or in other words the universe will contain every possible kind of thing afforded by the permutation of simple qualities.  Now the universe does not contain all these things;  it contains no ''well-known green horse''.  Hence the consequence of supposing a simple term to exist is an error of fact.  There are several other ways of showing this besides the one that I have adopted.  They all concur to show that whatever has extension must be composite.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 460–461).</p>
+
The ''New List'' (1867) account of the relationship between the kinds of signs and the kinds of arguments says this:
|}
 
 
 
'''Passage 3'''
 
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>The moment, then, that we pass from nothing and the vacuity of being to any content or sphere, we come at once to a composite content and sphere.  In fact, extension and comprehension — like space and time — are quantities which are not composed of ultimate elements;  but every part however small is divisible.</p>
+
In an argument, the premisses form a representation of the conclusion, because they indicate the interpretant of the argument, or representation representing it to represent its object.
 
 
<p>The consequence of this fact is that when we wish to enumerate the sphere of a term — a process termed ''division'' — or when we wish to run over the content of a term — a process called ''definition'' — since we cannot take the elements of our enumeration singly but must take them in groups, there is danger that we shall take some element twice over, or that we shall omit some.  Hence the extension and comprehension which we know will be somewhat indeterminate.  But we must distinguish two kinds of these quantities.  If we were to subtilize we might make other distinctions but I shall be content with two.  They are the extension and comprehension relatively to our actual knowledge, and what these would be were our knowledge perfect.</p>
 
 
 
<p>Logicians have hitherto left the doctrine of extension and comprehension in a very imperfect state owing to the blinding influence of a psychological treatment of the matter.  They have, therefore, not made this distinction and have reduced the comprehension of a term to what it would be if we had no knowledge of fact at all.  I mention this because if you should come across the matter I am now discussing in any book, you would find the matter left in quite a different state.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Commentary Note 7===
+
In general, if one takes the components of an Argument to be its Conclusion, its Premisses taken collectively, and its Interpretant, then they can be seen to take up the following sign relational duties:
  
I find one more patch of material from Peirce's early lectures that we need to cover the subject of indices.  I include a piece of the context, even if it overlaps a bit with fragments that still live in recent memory.
+
: <Conclusion, Premisses, Interpretant> = <Object, Sign, Interpretant>
  
'''Passage 4'''
+
This generality may be broken down according to the role of the premisses:
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>Yet there are combinations of words and combinations of conceptions which are not strictly speaking symbols.  These are of two kinds of which I will give you instances. We have first cases like:</p>
+
The premisses may afford a likeness, index, or symbol of the conclusion.
 +
|}
  
<center>man and horse and kangaroo and whale,</center>
+
In the case of the inductive argument, we have the following role assigments:
  
<p>and secondly, cases like:</p>
+
: <Conclusion, Premisses, Interpretant> = <Object, Index, Interpretant>
  
<center>spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit.</center>
+
Marked out in greater detail, we have the following role assignments:
 +
 
 +
Premisses (Index):
  
<p>The first of these terms has no comprehension which is adequate to the limitation of the extension.  In fact, men, horses, kangaroos, and whales have no attributes in common which are not possessed by the entire class of mammals.  For this reason, this disjunctive term, ''man and horse and kangaroo and whale'', is of no use whatever.  For suppose it is the subject of a sentence;  suppose we know that men and horses and kangaroos and whales have some common character.  Since they have no common character which does not belong to the whole class of mammals, it is plain that ''mammals'' may be substituted for this term.  Suppose it is the predicate of a sentence, and that we know that something is either a man or a horse or a kangaroo or a whale;  then, the person who has found out this, knows more about this thing than that it is a mammal;  he therefore knows which of these four it is for these four have nothing in common except what belongs to all other mammals.  Hence in this case the particular one may be substituted for the disjunctive term.  A disjunctive term, then, — one which aggregates the extension of several symbols, — may always be replaced by a simple term.</p>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are taken as samples of the collection ''M''.</p>
  
<p>Hence if we find out that neat are herbivorous, swine are herbivorous, sheep are herbivorous, and deer are herbivorous;  we may be sure that there is some class of animals which covers all these, all the members of which are herbivorous.  Now a disjunctive term — such as ''neat swine sheep and deer'', or ''man, horse, kangaroo, and whale'' — is not a true symbol.  It does not denote what it does in consequence of its connotation, as a symbol does;  on the contrary, no part of its connotation goes at all to determine what it denotes — it is in that respect a mere accident if it denote anything.  Its ''sphere'' is determined by the concurrence of the four members, man, horse, kangaroo, and whale, or neat swine sheep and deer as the case may be.</p>
+
<p>''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are ''P''.</p>
<p>Now those who are not accustomed to the homologies of the conceptions of men and words, will think it very fanciful if I say that this concurrence of four terms to determine the sphere of a disjunctive term resembles the arbitrary convention by which men agree that a certain sign shall stand for a certain thing.  And yet how is such a convention made?  The men all look upon or think of the thing and each gets a certain conception and then they agree that whatever calls up or becomes an object of that conception in either of them shall be denoted by the sign.  In the one case, then, we have several different words and the disjunctive term denotes whatever is the object of either of them.  In the other case, we have several different conceptions — the conceptions of different men — and the conventional sign stands for whatever is an object of either of them.  It is plain the two cases are essentially the same, and that a disjunctive term is to be regarded as a conventional sign or index.  And we find both agree in having a determinate extension but an inadequate comprehension.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 468–469).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Commentary Note 8===
+
Conclusion (Object):
  
I'm going to make yet another try at following the links that Peirce makes among conventions, disjunctive terms, indexical signs, and inductive rules.  For this purpose, I'll break the text up into smaller pieces, and pick out just those parts of it that have to do with the indexical aspect of things.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
All ''M'' is ''P''.
 +
|}
  
Before I can get to this, though, I will need to deal with the uncertainty that I am experiencing over the question as to whether a ''connotation'' is just another ''notation'', and thus belongs to the interpretive framework, that is, the ''SI''-plane, or whether it is an objective property, a quality of objects of terms.  I have decided to finesse the issue by forcing my own brand of interpretation on the next text, where the trouble starts:
+
Remark:
 
 
'''Passage 1'''
 
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>It is important to distinguish between the two functions of a word:  1st to denote something — to stand for something, and 2nd to mean something — or as Mr. Mill phrases it — to ''connote'' something.</p>
+
Hence the first premiss amounts to saying that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.  Hence the premisses are an index of the conclusion.
 +
|}
  
<p>What it denotes is called its ''Sphere''.  What it connotes is called its ''Content''.  Thus the ''sphere'' of the word ''man'' is for me every man I know; and for each of you it is every man you know.  The ''content'' of ''man'' is all that we know of all men, as being two-legged, having souls, having language, &c., &c.  It is plain that both the ''sphere'' and the ''content'' admit of more and less&hellip;</p>
+
One of the questions that I have at this point is whether Peirce is speaking loosely or strictly when he refers to the conclusion and the premisses of the argument in question.  Strictly speaking, the conclusion has the form ''M''&nbsp;&rArr;&nbsp;''P'' and the premisses have the forms ''S''<sub>''j''</sub>&nbsp;&rArr;&nbsp;''M'' and ''S''<sub>''j''</sub>&nbsp;&rArr;&nbsp;''P''.  But taken more loosely, as often happens in contexts where the antecedent of a conditional statement is already assumed to hold true, people will sometimes refer to the consequent of a conditional conclusion as the conclusion and the consequents of conditional premisses as the premisses. In the present case, such a practice would lead to speaking of the predicate ''M'' as one of the premisses and the predicate ''P'' as the conclusionSo let us keep that interpretive option in mind as we go.
  
<p>Now the sphere considered as a quantity is called the Extension;  and the content considered as quantity is called the Comprehension.  Extension and Comprehension are also termed Breadth and Depth.  So that a wider term is one which has a greater extension;  a narrower one is one which has a less extension.  A higher term is one which has a less Comprehension and a lower one has more.</p>
+
==Commentary Work Notes==
  
<p>The narrower term is said to be contained under the wider one;  and the higher term to be contained in the lower one.</p>
+
===Commentary Work Note 1===
  
<p>We have then:</p>
+
Here is my current picture of the situation, so far as it goes:
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                             |                             |
+
|     Objective Framework    |   Interpretive Framework    |
What is 'denoted'         | What is 'connoted'         |
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                             |                             |
+
|                                                          |
| Sphere                    | Content                    |
+
|              P <------------@------------ "P"            |
|                             |                             |
+
|              |\                            |\            |
Extension                  Comprehension              |
+
|              | \                          | \            |
|                             |                             |
+
|              \                          |  \          |
|           ( wider          |         ( lower             |
+
|              |  \                        |  \         |
| Breadth  <                |  Depth <                  |
+
|              |    \                        |    \         |
|           ( narrower        |        ( higher            |
+
|             |     M <------@--------------|--- "M"      |
|                             |                            |
+
|             |    = .                      |   / #      |
What is contained 'under' |  What is contained 'in'     |
+
|             |  =                        |   /          |
|                             |                             |
+
|              =                          /          |
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
+
|             | =    .                    | /    #      |
 +
|             |=                            |/             |
 +
|             S <------------@------------ "S"            |
 +
|            .. ..      .                * .. .#      #    |
 +
|          . .  . .                 *  . .  . #          |
 +
|        .  .    .  .          *    . .    . #        |
 +
|     .  .      .  . .  *      .  .      .  # #    |
 +
|   o    o        o    o         o    o        o    o    |
 +
|   m    h        k    w      "m"  "h"      "k"  "w"  |
 +
|   S_1 S_2      S_3 S_4    "S_1" "S_2"     "S_3" "S_4" |
 +
|                                                           |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
<p>The principle of explicatory or deductive reasoning then is that:</p>
+
I got as far as sketching a few readings of the penultimate sentence:
  
<p>Every part of a word's Content belongs to every part of its Sphere,</p>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
Hence the first premiss amounts to saying that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.
 +
|}
  
<p>or:</p>
+
Uncertain as my comprehension remains at this point, I will have to leave it in suspension for the time being.  But let me make an initial pass at the final sentence, so as not to leave an utterly incomplete impression of the whole excerpt.
  
<p>Whatever is contained ''in'' a word belongs to whatever is contained under it.</p>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
+
|
<p>Now this maxim would not be true if the Extension and Comprehension were directly proportional to one another;  this is to say if the Greater the one the greater the other.  For in that case, though the whole Content would belong to the whole Sphere;  yet only a particular part of it would belong to a part of that Sphere and not every part to every part.  On the other hand if the Comprehension and Extension were not in some way proportional to one another, that is if terms of different spheres could have the same content or terms of the same content different spheres;  then there would be no such fact as a content's ''belonging'' to a sphere and hence again the maxim would fail.  For the maxim to be true, then, it is absolutely necessary that the comprehension and extension should be inversely proportional to one another.  That is that the greater the sphere, the less the content.</p>
+
Hence the premisses are an index of the conclusion.
 
 
<p>Now this evidently true.  If we take the term ''man'' and increase its ''comprehension'' by the addition of ''black'', we have ''black man'' and this has less ''extension'' than ''man''.  So if we take ''black man'' and add ''non-black man'' to its sphere, we have ''man'' again, and so have decreased the comprehension. So that whenever the extension is increased the comprehension is diminished and ''vice versa''.  (Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 459–460).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
I am going to treat Peirce's use of the ''quantity consideration'' as a significant operator that transforms its argument from the syntactic domain ''S'' &cup; ''I'' to the objective domain ''O''.
+
The first premiss is this:
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>Now the sphere considered as a quantity is called the Extension;</br>
+
''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are taken as samples of the collection ''M''.
and the content considered as quantity is called the Comprehension.</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Taking this point of view, then, I will consider the Extensions of terms and the Comprehensions of terms, to be ''quantities'', in effect, objective formal elements that are subject to being compared with one another within their respective domains.  In particular, I will view them as elements of partially ordered sets.  On my reading of Peirce's text, the word ''content'' is still ambiguous from context of use to context of use, but I will simply let that be as it may, hoping that it will suffice to fix the meaning of the more technical term ''comprehension''.
+
We gather that it says that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.
  
This is still experimental — I'll just have to see how it works out over time.
+
Taking this very literally, I would guess that it holds by way of the paths from "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, ''S''<sub>4</sub>" to <font size="+3">&cup;</font>&nbsp;''S''<sub>''j''</sub> to ''M''.
  
===Commentary Note 9===
+
The second premiss is this:
  
2.  Conventions, Disjunctive Terms, Indexical Signs, Inductive Rules
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are ''P''.
 +
|}
  
2.1.  "man and horse and kangaroo and whale"  (intensional conjunction).
+
Together these premisses form an index of the conclusion, namely:
  
'''Nota Bene.'''  In this particular choice of phrasing, Peirce is using the intensional "and", meaning that the compound term has the intensions that are shared by all of the component terms, in this way producing a term that bears the ''greatest common intension'' of the terms that are connected in it.  This is formalized as the ''greatest lower bound'' in a lattice of intensions, dual to the union of sets or ''least upper bound'' in a lattice of extensions.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
All ''M'' is ''P''.
 +
|}
  
It is perhaps more common today to use the extensional "or" in order to express the roughly equivalent compound concept:
+
And all of this is said to be so because:
 
 
2.1.  "men or horses or kangaroos or whales"  (extensional disjunction).
 
  
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
|
 
|
<p>Yet there are combinations of words and combinations of conceptions which are not strictly speaking symbols.</p>
+
In an argument, the premisses form a representation of the conclusion, because they indicate the interpretant of the argument, or representation representing it to represent its object.
 +
|}
  
<p>These are of two kinds of which I will give you instances.</p>
+
And that is a bit that I will need to try to think about a bit before I even try to draw a picture of it.
  
<p>We have first cases like: "man and horse and kangaroo and whale" ...</p>
+
Let me advance a few words in prospect of how I plan to address the problem of objectivity. Although I've been using the bipartite scheme of objective and interpretive frameworks, that is only a matter of convenient organization, and embodies nothing like a claim to the invariant status of either objects or signs, as we have seen plenty of examples already of just how shifty those roles can be.
 +
 
 +
As I suggested in my last note, one sort of evidence, the amassing of which tends to make me assign a matter to the objective side of my experience, is the possibility of viewing it from many diverse angles, of being able to describe it from manifold points of view, and being able to relate those angles and views in a sensible way.
  
<p>[This term] has no comprehension which is adequate to the limitation of the extension.</p>
+
In the mathematical perspective known as "category theory", the question of objectivity is handled by way of what are derivatively enough nomenclated as "universal properties".
  
<p>In fact, men, horses, kangaroos, and whales have no attributes in common which are not possessed by the entire class of mammals.</p>
+
Working within any given category, the things that are potentially worth caring about, called "objects" or "spaces", along with the corresponding metamorphoses among them, called "arrows" or "morphisms", can be treated as having an objective status to the extent that there are many distinct "views" of them, called "functors", that relate to each other in natural and especially nice ways called "natural transformations".  That's it in a nutshell, very roughly, but I have forced a few details in prospect of the ways that I will have to change the setting a little for the sake of better accommodating semiotics in a suitably re-modelled category theory.
  
<p>For this reason, this disjunctive term, "man and horse and kangaroo and whale", is of no use whatever.</p>
+
===Commentary Work Note 2===
  
<p>For suppose it is the subject of a sentence;  suppose we know that men and horses and kangaroos and whales have some common character.</p>
+
Here's the "New List" text about the relations between the types of signs and the types of inference, that is, the morphological and temporal constituents of inquiry:
  
<p>Since they have no common character which does not belong to the whole class of mammals, it is plain that "mammals" may be substituted for this term.</p>
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 +
|
 +
<p>In an argument, the premisses form a representation of the conclusion, because they indicate the interpretant of the argument, or representation representing it to represent its object.  The premisses may afford a likeness, index, or symbol of the conclusion.</p>
  
<p>Suppose it is the predicate of a sentence, and that we know that something is either a man or a horse or a kangaroo or a whale;</p>
+
<p>[Deduction of a Fact]</p>
  
<p>then, the person who has found out this, knows more about this thing than that it is a mammal;</p>
+
<p>In deductive argument, the conclusion is represented by the premisses as by a general sign under which it is contained.</p>
  
<p>he therefore knows which of these four it is for these four have nothing in common except what belongs to all other mammals.</p>
+
<p>[Abduction of a Case]</p>
  
<p>Hence in this case the particular one may be substituted for the disjunctive term.</p>
+
<p>In hypotheses, something ''like'' the conclusion is proved, that is, the premisses form a likeness of the conclusion.  Take, for example, the following argument:--</p>
  
<p>A disjunctive term, then, — one which aggregates the extension of several symbols, — may always be replaced by a simple term.</p>
+
<p>''M'' is, for instance, ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>;</p>
  
<p>C.S. Peirce, 'Chronological Edition', CE 1, 468.</p>
+
<p>''S'' is ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>:</p>
|}
 
  
Let us first assemble a minimal syntactic domain ''S'' that is sufficient to begin discussing this example:
+
<p>&there4; ''S'' is ''M''.</p>
  
: ''S'' = {"m", "h", "k", "w", "S", "M", "P"}
+
<p>Here the first premiss amounts to this, that "''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>" is a likeness of ''M'', and thus the premisses are or represent a likeness of the conclusion.</p>
  
Here, I have introduced the abbreviations:
+
<p>[Induction of a Rule]</p>
  
: "m" = "man"
+
<p>That it is different with induction another example will show.</p>
: "h" = "horse"
 
: "k" = "kangaroo"
 
: "w" = "whale"
 
  
: "S" = "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"
+
<p>''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are taken as samples of the collection ''M'';</p>
: "M" = "Mammal"
+
 
: "P" = "Predicate shared by man, horse, kangaroo, whale"
+
<p>''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are ''P'':</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>&there4; All ''M'' is ''P''.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Hence the first premiss amounts to saying that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''.  Hence the premisses are an index of the conclusion.</p>
  
Let's attempt to keep tabs on things by using angle brackets for the comprehension of a term, and square brackets for the extension of a term.
+
<p>C.S. Peirce, "New List" CP 1.559 and CE 2, p. 58.</p>
  
For brevity, let x = ["x"], in general.
+
<p>Charles Sanders Peirce, "On a New List of Categories" (1867), ''Collected Papers'' CP 1.545-567.  ''Chronological Edition'' CE 2, 49-59.</p>
  
Here is an initial picture of the situation, so far as I can see it:
+
<p>http://www.peirce.org/writings/p32.html</p>
 +
<p>http://members.door.net/arisbe/menu/library/bycsp/newlist/nl-frame.htm</p>
 +
|}
  
 +
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 +
|
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
Line 2,316: Line 2,311:
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
|             P <------------o------------ "P"            |
+
P_1 P_2       P_3  P_4    "P_1" "P_2"    "P_3" "P_4" |
|            = \                            |\            |
 
|            =   \                          | \            |
 
|          =    \                          | \          |
 
|          =       \                        |  \          |
 
|        =        \                        |    \        |
 
|        P          M <------o--------------|--- "M"       |
 
|        \        =                        |    /        |
 
|          \      =                        |  /          |
 
|          \     =                          |  /          |
 
|            \  =                          | /            |
 
|            \ =                            |/            |
 
|              S <------------o------------ "S"             |
 
|            ** **                        ** **            |
 
|          * *  * *                    * *  * *          |
 
|        *  *    *  *                *  *    *  *        |
 
|      *  *      *  *            *  *      *  *      |
 
 
|    o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
 
|    o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
|    m   h        k   w        "m"  "h"      "k" "w"   |
+
|     ..  .      .  ...  *      ..  .      .  #.#   |
|                                                          |
+
|      . .  .    .  . .        *  . .  .    .  # .      |
 +
|          . .  . .                *  . .  . #          |
 +
|      .   .. ..    . .            .  * .. .#   . #    |
 +
|              P <------------@------------ "P"             |
 +
|        .    ^=    .                .    ^^    .        |
 +
|              | =    .                    | \    #      |
 +
|        .    |  = .                  .    | \ .        |
 +
|              |  =                        |  \          |
 +
|          .  |  .= .                  .  |  .\ #      |
 +
|              |    M <------@--------------|--- "M"      |
 +
|          .  |  . ^                    .  | . ^        |
 +
|              |  /                        |  /          |
 +
|            . | ./                        . | ./          |
 +
|              | /                          | /            |
 +
|            .|/                          .|/            |
 +
|              S <------------@------------ "S"             |
 +
|                                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
+
| Conjunctive Predicate "P" and Abductive Case "S => M"     |
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {"m", "h", "k", "w", "S", "M", "P"}      |
 
|                                                          |
 
| "m"  =  "man"                                            |
 
| "h"  =  "horse"                                          |
 
| "k"  =  "kangaroo"                                        |
 
| "w"  =  "whale"                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| "S"  =  "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"              |
 
| "M" =  "Mammal"                                          |
 
| "P"  =  "Predicate shared by man, horse, kangaroo, whale" |
 
|                                                          |
 
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
In effect, relative to the lattice of natural (non-phony) kinds, any property ''P'', predicated of ''S'', can be "lifted" to a mark of ''M''.
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 
 
===Commentary Note 10===
 
 
 
2.  Conventions, Disjunctive Terms, Indexical Signs, Inductive Rules (cont.)
 
 
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
 
|
 
|
<p>We come next to consider inductions.  In inferences of this kind we proceed as if upon the principle that as is a sample of a class so is the whole class.  The word ''class'' in this connection means nothing more than what is denoted by one term, — or in other words the sphere of a term.  Whatever characters belong to the whole sphere of a term constitute the content of that term.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of a specimen of the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  And what is a specimen?  It is something taken from a class or the sphere of a term, at random — that is, not upon any further principle, not selected from a part of that sphere;  in other words it is something taken from the sphere of a term and not taken as belonging to a narrower sphere.  Hence the principle of induction is that whatever can be predicated of something taken as belonging to the sphere of a term is part of the content of that term.  But this principle is not axiomatic by any means.  Why then do we adopt it?</p>
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
<p>To explain this, we must remember that the process of induction is a process of adding to our knowledge;  it differs therein from deduction — which merely explicates what we know — and is on this very account called scientific inference.  Now deduction rests as we have seen upon the inverse proportionality of the extension and comprehension of every term;  and this principle makes it impossible apparently to proceed in the direction of ascent to universals.  But a little reflection will show that when our knowledge receives an addition this principle does not hold.  &hellip;</p>
 
 
 
<p>The reason why this takes place is worthy of notice.  Every addition to the information which is incased in a term, results in making some term equivalent to that term.  &hellip;</p>
 
 
 
<p>Thus, every addition to our information about a term is an addition to the number of equivalents which that term has.  Now, in whatever way a term gets to have a new equivalent, whether by an increase in our knowledge, or by a change in the things it denotes, this always results in an increase either of extension or comprehension without a corresponding decrease in the other quantity.</p>
 
 
 
<p>(Peirce 1866, Lowell Lecture 7, CE 1, 462–464).</p>
 
|}
 
 
 
2.1.  "man and horse and kangaroo and whale"  (aggregarious animals).
 
 
 
It seems to me now that my previous explanation of the use of "and" in this example was far too complicated and contrived.  So let's just say that the conjunction "and" is being used in its ''aggregational'' sense.
 
 
 
I will also try an alternate style of picture for the ''lifting property'', by means of which, relative to the lattice of natural (non-ad-hoc) kinds, a property ''P'', naturally predicated of ''S'', can be ''elevated'' to apply to ''M''.
 
 
 
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
 
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
|              P <------------o------------ "P"            |
+
|              P <------------@------------ "P"            |
|             |\                            |\             |
+
|             ^^^                          ^^^             |
 
|              | \                          | \            |
 
|              | \                          | \            |
|             | \                         | \          |
+
|           . | .\                       . | .\          |
 
|              |  \                        |  \          |
 
|              |  \                        |  \          |
|             |   \                       |   \        |
+
|           .  | . \                     .  | . \        |
|              |    M <------o--------------|--- "M"      |
+
|              |    M <------@--------------|--- "M"      |
|             |   =                       |   /        |
+
|         .  |   .= .                  .  |   .^ #      |
 
|              |  =                        |  /          |
 
|              |  =                        |  /          |
|             |  =                         |  /           |
+
|         .    |  = .                  .    |  / .        |
|              | =                           | /           |
+
|              | =     .                    | /     #      |
|             |=                           |/             |
+
|       .    |=   .                .    |/   .        |
|              S <------------o------------ "S"            |
+
|              S <------------@------------ "S"            |
|           ** **                        ** **            |
+
|       .    .. ..    . .            .  * .. .#    . #    |
|          * * *                    * *   * *         |
+
|          . .  . .                . .   . #         |
|       * *     * *                 * *     * *        |
+
|     . . .     . . .        *   . . .     . # .      |
|     *   *       *   *             *   *       *   *      |
+
|     ..   .       .  ...   *     ..   .       .   #.#    |
 
|    o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
 
|    o    o        o    o        o    o        o    o    |
|   m    h        k    w        "m" "h"       "k" "w"   |
+
|   S_1  S_2      S_3  S_4    "S_1" "S_2"     "S_3" "S_4" |
 
|                                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
 
| Disjunctive Subject "S" and Inductive Rule "M => P"      |
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
|                                                          |
 
| !S!  =  !I!  =  {"m", "h", "k", "w", "S", "M", "P"}      |
 
|                                                          |
 
| "m"  =  "man"                                            |
 
| "h"  =  "horse"                                          |
 
| "k"  =  "kangaroo"                                        |
 
| "w"  =  "whale"                                          |
 
|                                                          |
 
| "S"  =  "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"              |
 
| "M"  =  "Mammal"                                          |
 
| "P"  =  "Predicate shared by man, horse, kangaroo, whale" |
 
|                                                          |
 
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
I believe that we can now begin to see the linkage to inductive rules.  When a sample ''S'' is ''fairly'' or ''randomly'' drawn from the membership ''M'' of some population and when every member of ''S'' is observed to have the property ''P'', then it is naturally rational to expect that every member of ''M'' will also have the property ''P''.  This is the principle behind all of our more usual statistical generalizations, giving us the leverage that it takes to lift predicates from samples to a membership sampled.
+
===Commentary Work Note 3===
  
Now, the aggregate that is designated by "man, horse, kangaroo, whale", even if it's not exactly a random sample from the class of mammals, is drawn by design from sufficiently many and sufficiently diverse strata within the class of mammals to be regarded as a quasi-random selection.  Thus, it affords us with a sufficient basis for likely generalizations.
+
Let me pause just a moment to knock out a couple of quick sketches of how I see the scene that Peirce is depicting here.
  
===Commentary Note 11===
+
Here is the rougher draft of the two, a diptych impaneled of an object fold and a sign fold, an interpretant being, after all, just another passing moment in the life cycle of a sign, and so there is an object ''o'', with its intensions ''p ''through ''q'', collectively constellating the comprehension of any sign ''s''<sub>''k''</sub>, above the instances, instantiations, or instants ''i'' through ''j'' of the object ''o'', aggregatively constituting the extension of any sign ''s''<sub>''k''</sub> that is said to denote ''o'' or its plurality below.
  
At this point it will help to jump ahead a bit in time, and to take in the more systematic account of the same material from Peirce's "New List of Categories" (1867).
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 
 
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
 
 
|
 
|
I shall now show how the three conceptions of reference to a ground, reference to an object, and reference to an interpretant are the fundamental ones of at least one universal science, that of logic.  (Peirce 1867, CP 1.559).
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
|}
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
+
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
We will have occasion to consider this paragraph in detail later, but for the present purpose let's hurry on down to the end of it.
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 
+
|                                                          |
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" width="90%" <!--QUOTE-->
+
|          p  ...  q                    · s_1              |
|
+
|          \    /               ·    ·                  |
<p>In an argument, the premisses form a representation of the conclusion, because they indicate the interpretant of the argument, or representation representing it to represent its object. The premisses may afford a likeness, index, or symbol of the conclusion. In deductive argument, the conclusion is represented by the premisses as by a general sign under which it is contained. In hypotheses, something ''like'' the conclusion is proved, that is, the premisses form a likeness of the conclusionTake, for example, the following argument:</p>
+
|            ^  ^          ·    ·    ·                  |
+
|            \ /     ·    ·    ·    ·                  |
: [Abduction of a Case]
+
|              o< · · · · · · · · · · · · s_k              |
 
+
|            / \    ·    ·    ·    ·                  |
: ''M'' is, for instance, ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>;
+
|            ^  ^          ·    ·    ·                  |
 
+
|          /     \              ·    ·                  |
: ''S'' is ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>:
+
|          i  ...  j                    · s_n              |
 
+
|                                                          |
: Therefore, ''S'' is ''M''.
+
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 
+
</pre></font>
<p>Here the first premiss amounts to this, that "''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, and ''P''<sub>4</sub>" is a likeness of ''M'', and thus the premisses are or represent a likeness of the conclusion.  That it is different with induction another example will show:</p>
 
 
 
: [Induction of a Rule]
 
 
 
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are taken as samples of the collection ''M'';
 
 
 
: ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub> are ''P'':
 
 
 
: Therefore, All ''M'' is ''P''.
 
 
 
<p>Hence the first premiss amounts to saying that "''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, and ''S''<sub>4</sub>" is an index of ''M''Hence the premisses are an index of the conclusion.</p>
 
 
 
<p>(Peirce 1867, CP 1.559).</p>
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
1Abductive Inference and Iconic Signs
+
I should mention, in no uncertain terms, that Peirce's present account does not yet count this ''abstract hypostasis'' or ''hypostatic object'' ''o'' in any explicit way, though I think it is inherent in the very form of his thinkingSo let us keep an eye out, as we proceed with the story, for when, if ever, this particular character first treads on the scene.
  
Peirce's analysis of the patterns of abductive argument can be understood according to the following paraphrase:
+
For future reference, I will go ahead and post here this advance notice of what may well be the next stage in the developmental differentiation of this, my embyronic autopoetics, but let's just see what we shall see.
  
* Abduction of a Case:
+
{| align="center" cellspacing="6" style="text-align:center; width:70%"
 +
|
 +
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
|                Higher Order Framework (HOF)              |
 +
o-------------------o-------------------o-------------------o
 +
|    Objective      Operands, Operators      Organon      |
 +
o-------------------o-------------------o-------------------o
 +
|                                                          |
 +
|                      implications        incitations    |
 +
|                    higher intensions                    |
 +
|                        (·········)              · s_1    |
 +
|                          \    /            ·  ·        |
 +
|                          ^  ^        ·  ·  ·        |
 +
|                            \ /      ·  ·  ·  ·        |
 +
|        o <·············· pomps < · · · · · · · · s_k    |
 +
|                            / \      ·  ·  ·  ·        |
 +
|                          ^  ^        ·  ·  ·        |
 +
|                          /    \            ·  ·        |
 +
|                        (·········)              · s_n    |
 +
|                      implementations                      |
 +
|                      institutions        inditations    |
 +
|                                                          |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
</pre></font>
 +
|}
  
: Fact:  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>1</sub>,  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>2</sub>,  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>3</sub>,  ''S'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>4</sub>
+
===Commentary Work Note 4===
: Rule:  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>1</sub>,  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>2</sub>,  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>3</sub>,  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''<sub>4</sub>
 
: -------------------------------------------------
 
: Case:  ''S'' &rArr; ''M''
 
  
: If ''X'' &rArr; each of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;,
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 +
Lest we get totally lost in the devilish details,
 +
I think that it might be a good idea to remember
 +
what I observed once before about the main theme
 +
of this whole part of Peirce's discussion:
  
: then we have the following equivalents:
+
At this point in his discussion, Peirce is relating the nature of
 +
inference, inquiry, and information to the character of the signs
 +
that are invoked in support of the overall process in question,
 +
a process that he is presently describing as "symbolization".
  
: 1. ''X'' &rArr; the ''greatest lower bound'' (''glb'') of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;
+
The links among the types of signs -- icons, indices, symbols --
 +
the aspects of semiosis -- connotation, denotation, information --
 +
and the types of inference -- abduction, induction, deduction --
 +
are parts of a bigger picture that we should try to keep in view.
  
: 2. ''X'' &rArr; the logical conjunction ''A'' &and; ''B'' &and; ''C'' &and; ''D'' &and; &hellip;
+
Outline of Peirce's Examples:
  
: 3. ''X'' &rArr; ''Q'' = ''A'' &and; ''B'' &and; ''C'' &and; ''D'' &and; &hellip;
+
1.    Conjunctive term "spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit".
 +
2.1.  Disjunctive term "man or horse or kangaroo or whale".
 +
2.2.  Disjunctive term "neat or swine or sheep or deer".
  
More succinctly, letting ''Q'' = ''P''<sub>1</sub> &and; ''P''<sub>2</sub> &and; ''P''<sub>3</sub> &and; ''P''<sub>4</sub>, the argument is summarized by the following scheme:
+
| Yet there are combinations of words and combinations of conceptions
 +
| which are not strictly speaking symbols.  These are of two kinds
 +
| of which I will give you instances.  We have first cases like:
 +
|
 +
| 'man and horse and kangaroo and whale',
 +
|
 +
| and secondly, cases like:
 +
|
 +
| 'spherical bright fragrant juicy tropical fruit'.
 +
|
 +
| (CSP, CE 1, 468-469).
  
* Abduction of a Case:
+
Returning to our present examples, the unmentioned elements of the
 +
universe of discourse X are the potential objects of !O!, and the
 +
sign domain !S! will contain all of the terms that we want to put
 +
on the sign relational Tables.  What are the interpretant signs?
 +
Well, in public discursions we cannot literally cut and paste our
 +
mental signs into texts, so we are stuck with using the same sorts
 +
of signs that we ordinarily assign to the sign domain !S! as proxies
 +
for these concepts, or "mental symbols", and so this surrogation will
 +
constitute the customary practice in formal, public discussions.  But
 +
the nice thing about the "formal" point of view, in other words, the
 +
outlook that looks out for the forms of things above all, is that we
 +
can be relatively sure that there is an approximate isomorph of the
 +
one-foot-in-the-psyche sort of sign relation that can found among
 +
the wholly unsubsidiary public domains.  So nothing much is lost,
 +
formally speaking, if we forget about the possible distincture
 +
in essence between a sign in the mind and a sign on the wall.
  
: Fact:  ''S'' &rArr; ''Q''
+
Given that we are now working with sign relations of the form
: Rule:  ''M'' &rArr; ''Q''
+
L c OxSxI = OxSxS, that is to say, where S = I is the common
: --------------
+
syntactic domain, we can picture the situation as follows:
: Case:  ''S'' &rArr; ''M''
 
  
In this piece of Abduction, it is the ''glb'' or the conjunction of the ostensible predicates that is the operative predicate of the argument, that is, it is the predicate that is common to both the Fact and the Rule of the inference.
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 +
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 +
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 +
|                            |                            |
 +
|                            |  "man"                    |
 +
|                            |  "horse"                  |
 +
|                            |  "kangaroo"                |
 +
|                            |  "whale"                  |
 +
|                            |  "mammal"                  |
 +
|                            |                            |
 +
|                            |  "spherical"              |
 +
|                            |  "bright"                  |
 +
|                            |  "fragrant"                |
 +
|                            |  "juicy"                  |
 +
|                            |  "tropical"                |
 +
|                            |  "fruit"                  |
 +
|                            |  "orange"                  |
 +
|                            |                            |
 +
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
  
Finally, the reason why one can say that ''Q'' is an iconic sign of the object ''M'' is that ''Q'' can be taken to denote ''M'' by virtue of the qualities that they share, namely, ''P''<sub>1</sub>, ''P''<sub>2</sub>, ''P''<sub>3</sub>, ''P''<sub>4</sub>.
+
That is to say, in the beginning there is nothing but words,
 +
and the objective side of the universe is all form and void.
  
Notice that the iconic denotation is symmetric, at least in principle, that is, icons are icons of each other as objects, at least potentially, whether or not a particular interpretive agent is making use of their full iconicity during a particular phase of semeiosis.
+
Example 2.1.  "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"
  
The abductive situation is diagrammed in Figure 11.1.
+
| The first of these terms has no comprehension which is
 
+
| adequate to the limitation of the extension.  In fact,
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
| men, horses, kangaroos, and whales have no attributes
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
| in common which are not possessed by the entire class
|                                                 |
+
| of mammals.  For this reason, this disjunctive term,
|           P_1  P_2        P_3  P_4          |
+
| 'man and horse and kangaroo and whale', is of no use
|           o    o          o    o            |
+
| whatever. For suppose it is the subject of a sentence;
|             *    *        *    *              |
+
| suppose we know that men and horses and kangaroos and
|               *  *      *  *                |
+
| whales have some common character.  Since they have no
|                 * *    *  *                  |
+
| common character which does not belong to the whole class
|                   * *  * *                    |
+
| of mammals, it is plain that 'mammals' may be substituted
|                     ** **                      |
+
| for this term. Suppose it is the predicate of a sentence,
|                     Q o                        |
+
| and that we know that something is either a man or a horse
|                       |\                      |
+
| or a kangaroo or a whale;  then, the person who has found
|                       | \                      |
+
| out this, knows more about this thing than that it is a
|                        | \                    |
+
| mammal;  he therefore knows which of these four it is for
|                       |  \                    |
+
| these four have nothing in common except what belongs to
|                       |    \                  |
+
| all other mammals. Hence in this case the particular
|                       |    o M                |
+
| one may be substituted for the disjunctive term.
|                       |    /                  |
+
| A disjunctive term, then, -- one which aggregates
|                       |                        |
+
| the extension of several symbols, -- may always be
|                       | /                    |
+
| replaced by a simple term.  (CSP, CE 1, 468-469).
|                       |                        |
+
 
|                       |/                      |
+
Suppose that one "attribute in common" or "common character"
|                     S o                        |
+
that comes to mind for men, horses, kangaroos, and whales
|                                                |
+
is the descriptor "sucks when young" (SWY)Then we have
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
the following beginnings of a sign relational set-up:
| Figure 1.  Abduction of the Case S => M        |
 
o-------------------------------------------------o
 
</pre></font>
 
  
In a diagram like this, even if one does not bother to show all of the implicational or the subject-predicate relationships by means of explicit lines, then one may still assume the ''[[transitive closure]]'' of the relations that are actually shown, along with any that are noted in the text that accompanies it.
+
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 +
|    Objective Framework    |  Interpretive Framework    |
 +
o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
 +
|                                                          |
 +
|                                          w                |
 +
|                                          o                |
 +
|                                          * *    Rule    |
 +
|                                          *  *  v=>w    |
 +
|                                          *    *          |
 +
|                                          *      *        |
 +
|                                    Fact *        *      |
 +
|                                    u=>w *          o v  |
 +
|                                          *        *      |
 +
|                                          *      *        |
 +
|                                          *    * Case    |
 +
|                                          *  *  u=>v    |
 +
|                                          * *              |
 +
|                                          o u              |
 +
|                                        .. ..              |
 +
|                                      . .  . .            |
 +
|                                    .  .    .  .          |
 +
|                                  .  .      .  .        |
 +
|                                o    o        o    o      |
 +
|                              s_1  s_2      s_3  s_4    |
 +
|                                                          |
 +
|                                                          |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
 +
| Disjunctive Subject u, Induction to the Rule v => w      |
 +
o-----------------------------------------------------------o
  
2. Inductive Inference and Indexic Signs
+
S =  I  =  {s_1, s_2, s_3, s_4, u, v, w}
  
Peirce's analysis of the patterns of inductive argument can be understood according to the following paraphrase:
+
s_1  =  "man"
 +
s_2  =  "horse"
 +
s_3  =  "kangaroo"
 +
s_4  =  "whale"
  
* Induction of a Rule:
+
u    =  "man or horse or kangaroo or whale"
 +
v    =  "sucks when young"
 +
w    =  "mammal"
  
: Case:  ''S''<sub>1</sub> &rArr; ''M'',  ''S''<sub>2</sub> &rArr; ''M'',  ''S''<sub>3</sub> &rArr; ''M'',  ''S''<sub>4</sub> &rArr; ''M''
+
Still nothing happening on the objective side of the world.
: Fact:  ''S''<sub>1</sub> &rArr; ''P'',  ''S''<sub>2</sub> &rArr; ''P'',  ''S''<sub>3</sub> &rArr; ''P'',  ''S''<sub>4</sub> &rArr; ''P''
+
Our first inkling of a connection to the "world of matter"
: -------------------------------------------------
+
comes with the notions of denotation and Peirce's "sphere".
: Rule:  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''
 
  
: If  ''X''  <=  each of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;,
+
| It is important to distinguish between the two functions of a word:
 
+
| 1st to denote something -- to stand for something, and 2nd to mean
: then we have the following equivalents:
+
| something -- or as Mr. Mill phrases it -- to 'connote' something.
 
+
|
: 1. ''X'' <= the ''least upper bound'' (''lub'') of ''A'', ''B'', ''C'', ''D'', &hellip;
+
| What it denotes is called its 'Sphere'.
 
+
| What it connotes is called its 'Content'.
: 2. ''X'' <= the logical disjunction ''A'' &or; ''B'' &or; ''C'' &or; ''D'' &or; &hellip;
+
| Thus the 'sphere' of the word 'man' is for
 
+
| me every man I know;  and for each of you it
: 3. ''X'' <= ''L'' = ''A'' &or; ''B'' &or; ''C'' &or; ''D'' &or; &hellip;
+
| is every man you know. The 'content' of 'man'
 
+
| is all that we know of all men, as being two-
More succinctly, letting ''L'' = ''P''<sub>1</sub> &or; ''P''<sub>2</sub> &or; ''P''<sub>3</sub> &or; ''P''<sub>4</sub>, the argument is summarized by the following scheme:
+
| legged, having souls, having language, &c., &c.
 
+
| It is plain that both the 'sphere' and the
* Induction of a Rule:
+
| 'content' admit of more and less.  ...
 
+
|
: Case: ''L'' &rArr; ''M''
+
| Now the sphere considered as a quantity is called the Extension;
: Fact:  ''L'' &rArr; ''P''
+
| and the content considered as quantity is called the Comprehension.
: --------------
+
| Extension and Comprehension are also termed Breadth and Depth.  So that
: Rule:  ''M'' &rArr; ''P''
+
| a wider term is one which has a greater extension;  a narrower one is
 
+
| one which has a less extension.  A higher term is one which has a
In this bit of Induction, it is the ''lub'' or the disjunction of the ostensible subjects that is the operative subject of the argument, to wit, the subject that is common to both the Case and the Fact of the inference.
+
| less Comprehension and a lower one has more.
 
+
|
Finally, the reason why one can say that ''L'' is an indexical sign of the object ''M'' is that ''L'' can be taken to denote ''M'' by virtue of the instances that they share, namely, ''S''<sub>1</sub>, ''S''<sub>2</sub>, ''S''<sub>3</sub>, ''S''<sub>4</sub>.
+
| The narrower term is said to be contained under the wider one;
 
+
| and the higher term to be contained in the lower one.
Notice that the indexical denotation is symmetric, at least in principle, that is, indices are indices of each other as objects, at least potentially, whether or not a particular interpretive agent is making use of their full indiciality during a particular phase of semeiosis.
+
|
 
+
| We have then:
The inductive situation is diagrammed in Figure 11.2.
+
|
 
+
| o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
| |                             |                             |
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
| | What is 'denoted'          |  What is 'connoted'        |
|                                                 |
+
| |                             |                            |
|                     P o                        |
+
| |  Sphere                     |  Content                    |
|                       |\                      |
+
| |                             |                            |
|                       |                       |
+
| | Extension                  |  Comprehension              |
|                       \                     |
+
| |                             |                            |
|                       |                       |
+
| |           ( wider          |        ( lower            |
|                       |   \                  |
+
| | Breadth  <                Depth  <                  |
|                       |     o M                |
+
| |           ( narrower        |         ( higher            |
|                       |   /                  |
+
| |                             |                             |
|                       |   /                    |
+
| | What is contained 'under'  What is contained 'in'     |
|                        /                    |
+
| |                             |                             |
|                       | /                      |
+
| o-----------------------------o-----------------------------o
|                        |/                      |
+
|
|                     L o                        |
+
| The principle of explicatory or deductive reasoning then is that:
|                     ** **                      |
+
|
|                   * *  * *                    |
+
| Every part of a word's Content belongs to
|                 * *     *  *                  |
+
| every part of its Sphere,
|               *  *      *  *                |
+
|
|             *    *        *    *              |
+
| or:
|           o    o          o    o           |
+
|
|          S_1  S_2        S_3  S_4          |
+
| Whatever is contained 'in' a word belongs to
|                                                |
+
| whatever is contained under it.
o-------------------------------------------------o
+
|
| Figure 2.  Induction of the Rule M => P        |
+
| CSP, CE 1, pages 459-460.
o-------------------------------------------------o
 
 
</pre></font>
 
</pre></font>
  
===Commentary Note 12===
+
===Commentary Work Note 5===
  
Let's redraw the ''New List'' pictures of Abduction and Induction in a way that is a little less cluttered, availing ourselves of the fact that logical implications or lattice subsumptions obey a transitive law to leave unmarked what is thereby understood.
+
<font face="courier new"><pre>
 +
Obeying some hobgoblin of consistency, I present Peirce's second example
 +
of a {disjunctive term, indexical sign, inductive rule} configuration on
 +
the same pattern as the first, and then I want to look more closely at a
 +
tricky feature of his account of comprehension, connotation, and content.
  
<font face="courier new"><pre>
+
Example 2.2.  "neat or swine or sheep or deer"
o-------------------------------------------------o
 
|                                                |
 
|                P_1  ...   P_k                |
 
|                  o    o    o                  |
 
|                  \    |    /                  |
 
|                    \  |  /                    |
 
|                    \ |  /                    |
 
|                      \ | /                      |
 
|                      \|/                      |
 
|                      Q o                        |
 
|                        |\                      |
 
|                        | \                      |
 
|                        |  \                    |
 
|                        |  \                    |
 
|                        |    \                  |
 
|                        |    o M                |
 
|                        |    ^                  |
 
|                        |  /                    |
 
|                        |  /                    |
 
|                        | /                      |
 
|                        |/                      |
 
|                      S o                        |
 
|                                                |
 
o--------------